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ascites, cirrhosis, esophageal varices, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatorenal syndrome



  1. Fowler, Christopher PhD, MBA, RN, ACNP-BC


Abstract: Cirrhosis results from repeated hepatocellular injury over time, leading to portal hypertension and the development of ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, and varices. Despite improvements in medical care for patients with cirrhosis, mortality from infection, renal failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma remain high.