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Pilonidal disease arises from hair follicles of the gluteal cleft and may result in a chronic exudative disorder. The management of pilonidal disease following surgical excision remains controversial, despite an abundance of research into different treatment options. Negative pressure wound therapy is an emerging treatment option for complex or recurrent pilonidal disease. We performed a comprehensive literature search, using the electronic databases MEDLINE, Cochrane library, CINAHL, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge. All studies, case reports, and multiple case series evaluating the use of negative pressure wound therapy for treatment of pilonidal disease were included. Despite the breadth of our search parameters, we identified limited studies addressing this issue; all were published between 2003 and 2007. Findings of 5 case reports or multiple case series tentatively suggest that negative pressure wound therapy may be an emerging treatment option for pilonidal disease management. However, we recommend that more rigorous research, including randomized controlled trials, be conducted before implications can be drawn for evidence-based practice.
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