Evidence-Based Practice Network

Synthesis Science in Healthcare

Evidence-based practice online book series

This series of concise texts is designed to provide a "toolkit" on synthesizing evidence for healthcare care decision-making and for translating evidence into action in both policy and practice. The series seeks to expand understanding of the basis of evidence-based healthcare and brings together an international group of scholars to describe, discuss, and debate critical issues in the field. Incredible developments in the synthesis and use of evidence in healthcare over the last several years have occurred, but the accompanying science and emerging practices that underpin evidence-based healthcare are often poorly understood by policy makers and health professionals.

This is unfortunate because several emerging and exciting developments have much to offer this group. First, new, deeper understandings of the nature of evidence and of ways to appraise and synthesize it have led to the development of more sophisticated methodologies for synthesis science. Second, the realization that the rapid increase in the availability of high quality evidence has not been matched by increases in the translation of this evidence into policy and/or clinical action has spurred on developments in the science of knowledge implementation and practice improvement.

The burgeoning publications in this area – particularly books on evidence-based healthcare –can go only so far in informing responsible and conscientious policy makers and healthcare practitioners. This new series, Lippincott/Joanna Briggs Institute, “Synthesis Science in Healthcare,” is devoted to communicating these exciting new interventions to both researchers and clinicians who are on the front line of practice or influencing policy. The books in this series contain step-by-step detailed discussions and practical processes for assessing, pooling, disseminating and using the best available international evidence. In all healthcare systems, there is growing consensus that evidence-based practice offers the most responsible course of action for improving health outcomes. All clinicians and health scientists want to provide the best possible care for patients, families, and communities. In this series, our aim is to close the evidence to action gap and make that possible. 


Book purchase includes the PDF version and an e-reader format for download to a device such as an iPad, Nook, or Kindle.

Purchase books 1-18 in the series and save over 40% if purchased individually! See details on bundle purchase...


The Synthesis Science in Healthcare book series consists of 24 books:

The JBI Model of Evidenced-Based HealthcareBook 1: The JBI Model of Evidence Based Healthcare
Authors: Prof Alan Pearson AM, Dr Susan Weeks, and Cindy Stern

Knowledge translation is a process derived from the need to ensure that our best knowledge (that is, the best available evidence) is used in practice and involves the ongoing, iterative and interactive process of translating knowledge from research into clinical practice and policy through ethically sound application and complex interactions between research developers and end users of research. This book seeks to examine the translational research process in relation to the JBI Model of Evidence Based Health Care and to clarify how the three translation gaps identified in the text and the elements of the JBI Model serve to complement each other in modelling the relationship between the translation science cycle and the pragmatic evidence-based healthcare cycle.

 


Synthesizing Qualitative EvidenceBook 2: Synthesizing Qualitative Evidence

Authors: Prof Alan Pearson AM, Dr Suzi Robertson-Malt and Dr Leslie Rittinmeyer

Practitioners and patients are called upon to make numerous health care decisions and, in doing so, need to weigh various types of information before taking action. This information comes from a myriad of sources, including the results of well-designed research; information related to the preferences of patients/clients and their relevant others; the practitioner’s own experiences; and the nature and norms of the setting and culture in which the care is being delivered. Methods to synthesize qualitative evidence are now emerging and this text examines the methodological bases to qualitative synthesis and describes the processes involved in the conduct of a rigorous synthesis of qualitative evidence, with a particular focus on Meta-Aggregation.

Synthesizing Evidence from Narrative, Text and OpinionBook 3: Synthesizing Evidence from Narrative, Text and Opinion
Authors: Dr Zoe Jordan, Dr Rie Konno and Prof Pei Fan Mu

While most health professionals have embraced the concept of evidence-informed clinical decision-making, it is true to say that clinical questions are not always answered by systematic reviews of research evidence. This book explores different sources of knowledge for clinical decision-making. It is frequently the case that knowledge from different sources may be applicable (and/or available) to inform a particular procedure or intervention. In the absence of evidence derived from rigorous primary research studies, what are the options? And once this knowledge is identified, how can clinicians feel confident about it reliability and validity before utilizing it in their practice?

 
Synthesizing Quantitative EvidenceBook 4: Synthesizing Quantitative Evidence
Authors: Craig Lockwood, Raluca Sfetcu and Dr Eui Geum Oh

The objective of a systematic review is to summarize the evidence on a specific clinical question using a transparent, a-priori protocol driven approach. This book provides an overview of the fundamental knowledge, principals and processes for the synthesis of quantitative data in reviews of the effectiveness of health care interventions. As such, it is designed for new reviewers, for students and as an introductory text for academics looking for a book on the fundamentals rather than advanced statistical processes. 

Synthesizing Evidence of RiskBook 5: Synthesizing Evidence of Risk
Authors: Dr Edoardo Aromataris, Dr Lisa Hopp and Zachary Munn
 
Synthesis of evidence related to risk is the primary focus of this volume. In the context of informing decisions in health care, risk refers to a deleterious or adverse outcome, primarily from ‘everyday’ or inadvertent exposure to a variable or risk factor. In some cases the ‘risk’ may arise from a treatment administered during the course of patient care also. Synthesis of this type of evidence is increasing in importance and relevance; evidenced by the increasing number of systematic reviews and meta-analyses appearing in publication. Information about risks, even if they appear only minimal, are of great interest to the general public and can have a marked impact on public health. Research, investigation and critical analysis across this important field of inquiry has the potential to better inform all of us, health care professionals, policy makers or lay persons, about the decisions we make in our day to day lives and the impact those decisions may have on our health both now and in our future.
 

 
Synthesizing Evidence of Diagnostic AccuracyBook 6: Synthesizing Evidence of Diagnostic Accuracy
Authors: Dr Sarahlouise Jones, Dr Tim Schultz and Dr Yeetey Enuameh

Clinicians have long relied upon diagnostic tests for ‘evidence’ of the presence or absence of a disease or a condition. Similarly, policy makers must evaluate the value of a particular diagnostic test, compare it to any others, and decide which test should be made available or funded. Methods to synthesize evidence from diagnostic test accuracy studies are now emerging and this text examines the methodological basis to the synthesis of diagnostic test accuracy data and describes the processes involved in the conduct of a diagnostic test accuracy systematic review. Although screening studies share some similarities with diagnostic studies and may report similar statistics, screening is typically applied to uncover very early signs of disease or the risk of disease, whereas diagnostic tests are generally applied to individuals with signs or symptoms of disease. Issues of meta-analysis of screening studies are discussed elsewhere.
 

Synthesizing Economic Evidence by Dr Catalin Tufanaru and Woan-Shin TanBook 7: Synthesizing Economic Evidence
Authors: Dr Catalin Tufanaru and Woan-Shin Tan

Systematic reviews of economic evidence select, critique and synthesize data from multiple economic evaluation primary research studies on the economic aspects of healthcare. They can provide relevant evidence on efficiency, resulting in less biased, decision-maker oriented information, which may be more likely to convince decision makers compared with evidence from single studies. This book presents step by step methodological guidance for systematic reviews of economic evidence that are designed to inform healthcare decision making.

BUY BOOK 7

Books 1-18: $220.00
Books 19-24:  $75.00

 

 
Critically Appraising Evidence for HealthcareBook 8: Critically Appraising Evidence for Healthcare
Authors: Alan Pearson, Heather Loveday, and Arja Holopainen

Critically appraising an article is much more than simply reading it. Appraisal is a technique that will improve the effectiveness of your ability to read research and determine if it is of adequate quality. This book will teach you how to critically appraise all types of research using questions geared to the particular type of research. You will then be able to determine if the research results are valid and can be applied in practice.

 
 
Synthesizing Evidence of HarmBook 9: Synthesizing Evidence of Harm
Authors: Edoardo Aromataris and Sandeep Moola

Harm and adverse outcomes are two issues that a healthcare provider never wants to see happen to their patient. Harm and adverse outcomes are often the result of a treatment or therapy. This book will teach you to appraise the chance of harm or adverse outcomes so you will be able to provide better care and better outcomes to your patient.

BUY BOOK 9

Books 1-18: $220.00
Books 19-24:  $75.00

Synthesizing Descriptive EvidenceBook 10: Synthesizing Descriptive Evidence
Authors: Craig Lockwood and Sarahlouise White


Descriptive evidence is considered case reports, case-series reports, and cross sectional and surveillance studies. They are often the foundation of other forms of evidence and are used to help build the knowledge base in policy and practice. This book will teach you to assess critically appraise descriptive evidence for validity and applicability.

 

Statistics for Systematic Review AuthorsBook 11: Statistics for Systematic Review Authors
Authors: Catalin Tufanaru, William J. Huang, Shwu-Feng Tsay, and Shin-Shang Chou


The role of statistics in the systematic review process is extremely important. For healthcare providers and researchers completing a systematic review, this book will teach you how to use the proper statistical method to determine the odds ratio, risk differential and other crucial measurements to verify the validity and applicability of your systematic review.

BUY BOOK 11

Books 1-18: $220.00
Books 19-24:  $75.00

Knowledge Translation in HealthcareBook 12: Knowledge Translation in Healthcare
Authors: Alison Kitson, Rick Wiechula, Susan Salmond, and Zoe Jordan


In healthcare practice, healthcare providers are tasked with the challenge of bringing knowledge into practice to improve patient outcomes. This book is constructed to bring healthcare providers on the step-by-step journey through knowledge translation and how to bring evidence to healthcare practice.
Clinical Wisdom and Evidence-Based HealthcareBook 13: Clinical Wisdom and Evidence-Based Healthcare
Authors: Alan Pearson, Daphne Stannard, and Hu Yan

What counts as evidence in healthcare? This book will define what is evidence in healthcare. It will also explain how healthcare providers grow in their professional development and move from a novice to an expert healthcare provider. The book will also discuss how to facilitate clinical wisdom in education and practice, which leads to improved patient outcomes. 

Knowledge Translation in HealthcareBook 14: A Comparison of Meta-Aggregation and Meta-Ethnography as Qualitative Review Methods

Authors: Craig Lockwood, Alan Pearson

This monograph examines and explores the assumptions and debates associated with qualitative synthesis within the health sciences and is based on the work of one of the authors (Lockwood, 2011). While some methods have been established for years and others are more emergent, all are evolving. Whilst this development occurs, several approaches in particular have been used in the conduct of systematic reviews of qualitative research that have risen to the fore in the published literature. There are two approaches to qualitative synthesis that are dominant in contemporary debates: meta-ethnography and meta-aggregation.
 A Comparison of Meta-Aggregation and Meta-Ethnography as Qualitative Review MethodsBook 15: International Collaboration in Translational Health Science
Authors: Zoe Jordan, Alan Pearson

Healthcare, health research, and improved health outcomes are of international interest and efforts to achieve better health for the global community have been high on the agenda for some years. Calls to improve strategies for international linkages, particularly between developed and developing or low-income economies, are not new, but there is currently no model for how to effectively achieve this.

Implementing Evidence Using an Action Research FrameworkBook 16: Public Engagement in Translating Knowledge to Action
Authors: Suzanne Robertson-Malt, Dagmara Riitano

This book examines the important role public engagement can play in evidence based healthcare and translation research. After reading this book the reader will be able to:
  • define public engagement as it pertains to translational science;
  • review existing models and highlight examples of good practice;
  • demonstrate the important role the public has in guiding the assessment, implementation and evaluation of research within the healthcare system;
  • promote a more proactive, developmental approach to engaging the public; and choose a method of engagement best suited to their organization's needs.
Implementing Evidence Using an Action Research FrameworkBook 17: Implementing Evidence Using an Action Research Framework
Authors: Zachary Munn, Alan Pearson

This book seeks to demonstrate how action research can be used as a strategy to implement evidence into practice. It focuses on an action research study led by one of the authors in a medical imaging department of a large, acute teaching hospital as a case exemplar of how the approach can be used. Although the setting for this is specific and unique, the processes employed are transferable to any other healthcare setting.
The Historical Emergence of Qualitative SynthesisBook 18: The Historical Emergence of Qualitative Synthesis
Authors: Kylie Porritt, Alan Pearson

Evidence for practice has increasingly influenced and contributed to the improvement of care over the past few decades. While evidence for practice appears to be an integral component to decision making in healthcare practice, it has historically been dominated by the results of quantitative research. All other forms of research, specifically qualitative research, have, it can be argued, been marginalized.

Book 19: Guideline Adaptation: Conducting Systematic, Exhaustive, and Reproducible Searches
Authors: Amanda Ross-White, Patricia Oakley, and Craig Lockwood

Clinical policy regarding the management of health conditions has historically been driven by knowledge and experience of healthcare professionals. Evidence-based practice posits that a health care professional must include and combine the best available evidence, with clinical expertise and the patient's for treatment. This book will outline how to develop clinical practice guidelines and how to use and  conduct systematic, exhaustive, and reproducible searches.

Book 20: CAN-IMPLEMENT©: Planning for Best-Practice Implementation
Authors: Margaret B. Harrison, Joan van den Hoek, and Ian D. Graham

Developing clinical practice guidelines must be done in a systematic method to insure the practice guidelines contain the latest and best available evidence. In addition, individual healthcare organizations may have different resources available at their disposal. This book will outline how the latest version of CAN-Implement© can be utilized to develop and implement clinical practice guidelines and best practices into clinical practice that are specific to an individual healthcare institution.
Book 21: Turning Knowledge into Action: Practical Guidance on How to Do Integrated Knowledge Translation Research
Edited By: Ian D. Graham, Jacqueline M. Tetroe, and Alan Pearson

Integrated knowledge translation research (iKTR) is a way of doing research that increases the relevance, applicability and impact of results. It shares common principles with many collaborative research approaches including: co-production of knowledge, participatory research, linkage and exchange, Mode 2 knowledge production, engaged scholarship, and community based research. IKTR is a paradigm shift, which sees the collaboration of knowledge producers and users as an essential step in achieving societal impact.  Chapter 1 focuses on what iKTR is and the known benefits and challenges of the approach. The chapters that follow offer practical guidance on how to: conduct collaborative (iKT) research (Chapter 2), undertake deliberative dialogue priority setting for research (Chapter 3), move research into action (Chapter 4), and conduct evaluation (Chapter 5). Each chapter identifies learning objectives, describes the key issues and relevant research, uses examples to illustrate concepts and ends by providing summary points.

BUY BOOK 21


Books 1-18: $220.00
Books 19-24:  $75.00

Book 22: A Mixed Methods Approach to Evidence Synthesis
Authors: Alan Pearson, Heath White, Fiona Bath-Hextall, Susan Salmond, Joao Apostolo, Pamela Kirkpatrick, and Craig Lockwood

The systematic review is critically important in the process of identifying the evidence on which to based clinical practice. This book will discuss and describe the processes involved in conducting a systematic review using evidence from studies of different designs.
 
Book 23: Stakeholder Engagement: The Role of Tacit Knowledge and Value Statements in Translation Science
Authors: Zoe Jordan, Alexa McArthur, and Mark McMillan

The extraordinary pace of health innovation and research over the past decades has created unprecedented opportunities to improve health care services and health outcomes for the community. Translational research is only successful when key stakeholders play a critical role in identifying gaps in knowledge, give suggestions for additional research, and facilitate the implementation of research into practice. This book provides the framework  needed to engage stakeholders in the translational research process in order to successfully knowledge into practice and policy.
 
Book 24: The Synthesis of Prevalence and Incidence Data
Authors: : Zachary Munn, Sandeep Moola, Karolina Lisy, and Dagmara Riitano

The amount of literature in the health and social fields has increased at an exponential rate over the last 30 years. Synthesis of prevalence and incidence data has the potential to better inform social and healthcare professionals, policy makers, and consumers in decisions made relating to a range of healthcare decisions. This book provides comprehensive guidance to researchers and healthcare professionals wishing to conduct systematic reviews on prevalence and incidence data as well as those implementing evidence into practice.
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