Critical Care Nursing Quarterly
March 2003, Volume 26 Number 1 , p 3 - 15
Heart failure is a devastating chronic and progressive cardiac disorder affecting millions of Americans annually. Identifying the cause and initiating treatment early is the key to attempting to slow the progression of the condition. Recommended therapy is treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, diuretics, digoxin, beta blockers, and in patients with symptomatic class III and IV heart failure, the addition of aldactone.