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The American Heart Association has published some major changes in its guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC). One of the most notable is a change in the recommended compression-ventilation ratio. To achieve optimal compression rates and reduce the frequency of interruptions in compressions, the new guidelines recommend a compression-ventilation ratio of 30:2 for all lone rescuers of all patients except newborns. This change from the previously recommended 15:2 ratio is intended to simplify training in one-rescuer or two-rescuer CPR for adults and all lay rescuer resuscitation. The 15:2 ratio is still recommended for health care provider two-rescuer CPR for infants and children. Rescuers providing compressions are urged to "push hard, push fast," allow complete chest recoil after each compression, and minimize interruptions in chest compression.


Major changes in CPR protocols were summarized in a special supplement to Circulation. The guidelines are available online free at




Major changes in the 2005 AHA guidelines for CPR and ECC, Circulation (IV206-IV211), MF Hazinski, et al., December 13, 2005.