Adipose Tissue Inflammation Tied to Fat Deposition

Subcutaneous adipose tissue inflammation ups VAT deposition, hepatic fat fraction

THURSDAY, Oct. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) inflammation is not correlated with gender or ethnicity, and is associated with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) deposition, hepatic fat fraction (HFF), hyperinsulinemia, and stimulation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) stress pathway, according to a study published in the November issue of Diabetes.

Kim-Anne Lê, Ph.D., from the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, and colleagues investigated the impact of ethnicity and SAT inflammation on HFF, VAT deposition, insulin sensitivity (SI), β-cell function, and SAT gene expression in obese young adults. SAT inflammation was measured by the presence of crown-like structures (CLS) in biopsies of SAT from 36 obese young adults. Using magnetic resonance imaging, intravenous glucose tolerance tests, and Illumina microarrays, SAT, VAT, HFF, SI, β-cell function (disposition index [DI]), and SAT gene expression were assessed.

The investigators found that participants with and without CLS were similar in terms of ethnicity, sex, and total body fat. Significantly greater VAT, HFF, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, fasting insulin and glucose, and lower DI were seen in individuals with CLS. Upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and monocyte antigen CD14 genes, and other genes belonging to the NF-κB stress pathway, were found in individuals with CLS in SAT.

"Adipose tissue inflammation was equally distributed between sexes and ethnicities. It was associated with partitioning of fat toward VAT and the liver and altered α-cell function, independent of total adiposity," the authors write.

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