CONTROLLING PAIN: Using mixed agonist-antagonists

February 2005 
Volume 35  Number 2
Pages 17 - 17
  PDF Version Available!


  • Pros and cons of MAAs

  • Who shouldn't take MAAs

  • Adding MAAs to the mix


    QUESTION: Mixed agonist-antagonist (MAA) drugs are supposed to have fewer adverse effects than opioids, but seem complicated to use. How do they work and when are they indicated?

    ANSWER: Although not first-line drugs, MAAs are used for some procedures, such as labor and delivery, and in certain settings, such as ambulatory care, because of their short duration of action and lower risk of respiratory depression. This group of potent analgesics comprises butorphanol, nalbuphine, and pentazocine. (Buprenorphine is often included too, although it's a partial agonist and lacks some of the other properties common to MAAs.)

    Agonist drugs such as morphine bind to specific receptor sites on nerves. Morphine and hydromorphone, which are pure mu agonists, bind at the mu site, becoming active and ...

Purchase Now !

To purchase this item, follow the instructions below. If you’re not already logged in, be sure to enter your login information below to ensure that your item is saved to your File Drawer after you purchase it.

Not a member? Join now for Free!

1) If you're not already logged in, enter your information below to save this item in your File Drawer for future viewing.

User name:


Forgot your user name or password?
2)  If you have a coupon or promotional code, enter it
here.(If not, just click Continue.

Digital Coupon: (optional)

3)  Click Continue to go to the next screen, where
you'll enter your payment details.

jQuery UI Accordion - Default functionality

For life-long learning and continuing professional development, come to Lippincott's NursingCenter.

Nursing Jobs Plus
Featured Jobs
Recommended CE Articles

Blunt Chest Trauma
Journal of Trauma Nursing, November/December 2014
Expires: 12/31/2016 CE:2 $21.95

The School Age Child with Congenital Heart Disease
MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, January/February 2015
Expires: 2/28/2017 CE:2.5 $24.95

Understanding multiple myeloma
Nursing Made Incredibly Easy!, January/February 2015
Expires: 2/28/2017 CE:2 $21.95

More CE Articles

Subscribe to Recommended CE

Recommended Nursing Articles

Comprehensive Care: Looking Beyond the Presenting Problem
Journal of Christian Nursing, January/March 2015
Free access will expire on March 2, 2015.

Pain and Alzheimer dementia: A largely unrecognized problem
Nursing Made Incredibly Easy!, January/February 2015
Free access will expire on February 16, 2015.

Glycemic control in hospitalized patients
Nursing2015 Critical Care, January 2015
Free access will expire on February 16, 2015.

More Recommended Articles

Subscribe to Recommended Articles

Evidence Based Practice Skin Care Network NursingCenter Quick Links What’s Trending Events