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Fluids & Electrolytes
1. According to Redelings and colleagues, pressure ulcers were the primary cause of death in what percentage of deaths in which pressure ulcers were listed as a cause in the United States between 1990 and 2001?
2. Prevalence is defined as
a. all cases of a particular condition in the population at a given time.
b. all cases of a condition among those at risk for developing the condition.
c. the combined total of those who have a condition and those at risk for it.
d. the number of new cases of a condition that occur over a specified period of time in relation to the total number of at-risk people in the population in the same period.
3. Which of the following Braden Scale scores predicts pressure ulcer development?
4. One of the six Braden Scale subsets is
a. overall hydration.
b. cognitive impairment.
c. chronic illness.
d. sensory perception.
5. In nursing homes, pressure ulcer prevention programs have reduced pressure ulcer prevalence by almost
6. According to Thomson O'Brien and colleagues, which of the following is required to significantly increase the potential for changing clinical practice in pressure ulcer prevention?
7. Within three months of implementing PUPPI and educating staff at the authors' facility, the prevalence of pressure ulcers was reduced
a. to 4% for all ulcers and 2% for hospital-acquired ulcers.
b. a little more than a third from baseline.
c. about one-quarter from baseline.
d. to 12.65% for all ulcers and 6.84% for hospital-acquired ulcers.
8. In the first quarter of the implementation of PUPPI, what was the RNs' rate of compliance with completing the audits?
9. In the first quarter of implementation of PUPPI, what was the patient care associates' rate of compliance with completing the audits?
10. Compared with the baseline benchmark prevalence of 12.65% for all pressure ulcers, the rate at the authors' facility during the first quarter after PUPPI implementation was
a. approximately 4 percentage points higher.
b. more than 4 percentage points lower.
c. approximately 8 percentage points higher.
d. more than 8 percentage points lower.
11. Compared with the baseline benchmark prevalence of 6.84% for hospital-acquired pressure ulcers, the rate at the authors' facility during the first quarter after PUPPI implementation was
12. Which PUPPI intervention addresses the Braden category of mobility?
a. Encourage increased activity
b. Consult physical therapy
c. Inspect bony prominences daily
d. Use sheepskin whenever available
13. PUPPI includes turning and repositioning patients who are in bed or in chairs at least every
b. 2 hours.
c. 3 hours.
d. 4 hours.
14. Of the following, which laboratory value is crucial in evaluating pressure ulcer risk?
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