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exercise, health, heart failure, person-environment, triangulation, vigor



  1. Fontana, Joyce A. RN, PhD, CS


A descriptive study using between-methods triangulation was conducted to explore perceptions of vigor in heart failure and the role that planned exercise played in these perceptions. Fifty-four people with heart failure were surveyed about perceived health, mental health, physical functioning, and vigor. Average energy expenditure in planned exercise, ventricular function, and exercise tolerance was also measured. A subgroup of 12 provided linguistic data about vigor. Triangulated analysis uncovered the importance of the person-environment interaction to vigor perceptions in heart failure and lent support to the inclusion of this phenomenon as a cornerstone of the nursing paradigm.