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activism, Gulf War, Iraqi women, land mines, malnutrition, peacemaking, prevention of war, rape, violence



  1. Boyle, Joyceen S. PhD, RN, FAAN
  2. Bunting, Sheila M. PhD, RN


War is a major global threat to human health, not only in the immediate effects of death and injury to the people, but also in the damage to infrastructures such as food, water, and power supplies and to social structures that support families, economies, and governments.Iraq's devastating aftershocks from the Gulf War include the physical and psychologic effects of displacement, poverty, famine, and environmental destruction. Early nursing leaders vocally opposed World War I, and contemporary nurses should consider becoming activists in the primary and secondary prevention of this major global health problem.