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automated data retrieval, heart failure, patient education, readmission, self-care



  1. Thomas, Valorie MS, RN
  2. Riegel, Barbara DNSc, RN, CS, FAAN


Heart failure (HF) is both highly prevalent and costly to society. Successful self-care is essential to effective HF management. This study sought to develop a method to identify, via medical records (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification) coding, HF admissions attributable to ineffective self-care. Expert panels completed an iterative series of mailed surveys to generate and validate a list of coded diagnoses that represent HF sequelae modifiable through self-care. Sixteen diagnoses resulted. Chart review at one hospital revealed that these modifiable sequelae were frequently present but not coded. A computerized method of identifying self-care deficits would allow nurses to identify patients in need of patient education.