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  1. Kirkpatrick, Mary K. EdD, RN
  2. Brown, Sylvia EdD, RN
  3. Koldjeski, Dixie PhD, RN, FAAN


The cluster of activities called ROPES is borrowed and modified for teaching from OUTWARD Bound, the renowned outdoor management training program. ROPES uses experiential learning situations in which characteristic problem-solving tasks encourage the participants to stretch their personal limits and to learn teamwork. In doing so, trust, self-confidence, and communication and leadership skills develop through accomplishment of specific challenging activities. ROPES activities were found to be an effective method of instruction for teaching leadership in a senior nursing leadership course.