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  1. Jeffreys, Marianne R. EdD, RN
  2. Smodlaka, Ivan PhD


The process of developing a self-report measuring instrument is described, from the original idea through the preliminary study of reliability and validity of the instrument. The specific example used is the Transcultural Self-Efficacy Tool, a questionnaire designed to measure and evaluate students' confidence for performing general transcultural nursing skills among diverse client populations.