1. Ruder, Shirley RN, MS, MSN, EdD


Assessing pain at end of life is often a challenge for the home health clinician, especially in different age groups or in the presence of severe cognitive impairment, language barriers, or communication difficulties. The task of assessing and monitoring the severity of pain and measuring the effectiveness of treatment measures is essential for effective pain management. This article provides home health clinicians with some practical skills and essential tools to assess and record pain intensity as the first step for effective pain management.