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Baldrige Award, CQI, health care management, TQM



  1. Carman, James M.
  2. Shortell, Stephen M.
  3. Foster, Richard W.
  4. Hughes, Edward F.X.
  5. Boerstler, Heidi
  6. O' Brien, James L.
  7. O'Connor, Edward J.


Editor's Note: This article reports the findings of an analysis of the implementation of continuous quality improvement (CQI) or total quality management (TQM) programs in 10 hospitals. This analysis is the result of a 2-year study designed to identify and assess the ingredients that lead to the successful implementation of CQI programs in acute care hospitals. This article first appeared in Health Care Management Review 21(1), 48-60. Copyright (C) 1996 Aspen Publishers, Inc. (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins).