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Keywords

Diabetes complication, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Insulin infusion system, Pediatrics.

 

Authors

  1. Carchidi, Catherine MS, RN, CDE, CPT
  2. Holland, Cheryl RD, LDN, CDE, CPT
  3. Minnock, Pantea CPNP, CCRP, TCN
  4. Boyle, Diane MS, RD, LDN, CDE, CPT

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide nurses with an overview of the latest technologies used in the management of diabetes, as well as information about future goals of technology in this arena. Advances in technology have had a major impact on diabetes management in the inpatient and outpatient setting. Children with type 1 diabetes mellitus are increasingly utilizing continuous subcutaneous insulin infusions (insulin pumps) and continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS), both of which have been shown to improve glycemic control and quality of life. Insulin pumps provide users a tool to administer insulin with more efficiency, precision, and flexibility than is possible with injections. The CGMS is able to generate information on glucose values every 1 to 5 minutes, allowing for a more comprehensive analysis of glucose trends and patterns. All devices, however, have limitations, and it is therefore essential that proper education for families and providers be provided to promote successful use and reduce adverse events. Hospitals also need guidelines on how to incorporate these new technologies in an inpatient setting. Future technology is focused on the development of smaller insulin pumps, more patch pumps, multihormone pumps such as with pramlintide, greater CGM accuracy, and a more reliable system for device communication. The ultimate goal of diabetes technology is a closed-loop system where euglycemia can be achieved with minimal patient intervention.