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  1. Grauer, Phyllis A. PharmD, CGP


Care of the elderly at the end of life requires knowledge of both symptom management in the terminally ill patient and geriatric pharmacology. Most medications for the treatment of pain, constipation, anxiety depression, nausea and vomiting, delirium, and terminal secretions can be used safely in older adults. Adjustments in doses may be needed not only based on the person's age, but also as a result of disease and end-stage organ failure. Successful symptom management depends on recognition of common symptoms in end of life and their treatment, comprehensive patient assessment, thoughtful choice of drug therapy, and careful monitoring for efficacy and adverse effects.