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  1. Kutlu, Adalet Koca PhD, RN
  2. Yilmaz, Emel PhD, RN
  3. Cecen, Dilek MSc, RN
  4. Eser, Erhan MD


The aim of this study is to translate into the Turkish language, and test the reliability and validity, of the Turkish version of the Constipation Risk Assessment Scale (CRAS). This study consisted of 245 adult in-patients who were hospitalized in the medical and surgical clinics of Celal Bayar University Hospital in January through May 2007. The patients were categorized into two groups (constipated and not constipated) according to Rome II criteria. All participants were assessed with the CRAS. The CRAS was retested on 32 patients selected randomly from among the initial constipated group (n =152). The statistical analysis consisted of reliability and validity analyses. Test-retest comparison and internal consistency were used to assess the reliability of the instrument. Divergence and known groups approaches were used to test for construct validity. Correlation analysis using the Pearson's coefficient was conducted to assess the test-retest. For testing of the criteria and known groups, Student's t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used. Cronbach's = value for the constipated respondents was r = 61.9. According to the effect size comparisons, the most effective variable on the CRAS score was perception of constipation risk requirement. The overall score and subsection score correlations were also found acceptable (r = 0.47-0.57).