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Korean immigrants, psychometric validation, short acculturation scale



  1. Choi, Sarah E.
  2. Reed, Preston L.


Background: Acculturation has been identified as a determinant of health behavior and outcome among ethnic minorities. The high prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic diseases and risk factors among Korean immigrants calls for a valid short acculturation scale to use in clinical practice and health research settings.


Objectives: The aim of this study was to validate the psychometric properties of a short acculturation scale originally developed for Hispanics after translating the scale to Korean (SAS-K) to determine its suitability for use with Korean immigrants.


Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 143 Korean immigrants with Type 2 diabetes aged 30-80 years from a Korean community in Southern California. Confirmatory factor analysis, criterion validity, and internal reliability were utilized to evaluate the psychometric properties of the SAS-K.


Results: Using a second-order confirmatory factor analysis, a 3-factor structure, [chi]2(51) = 121.49, p < .001 (comparative fit index = .950, standardized root mean squared residual = .055, root mean square error of approximation = .099), was confirmed. The SAS-K was associated positively with length of residence, age of arrival, and English proficiency. Reliability for the total SAS-K was .93. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for each subscale of the SAS-K ranged from .80 (Ethnic Social Relations) to .95 (Media).


Discussion: The 12-item, easy-to-use SAS-K showed satisfactory reliability and validity and, thus, is an appropriate instrument for measuring acculturation in Korean immigrants. The short nature and ease of administration of the SAS-K make it an ideal choice for healthcare providers and researchers to assess acculturation levels quickly and easily and to further the development and use of more culture-appropriate interventions.