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  1. Mercer, Judith S. PhD, CNM, FACNM
  2. Erickson-Owens, Debra A. PhD, CNM


A brief delay in clamping the umbilical cord results in a placental transfusion that supplies the infant with a major source of iron during the first few months of life. Cord circulation continues for several minutes after birth and placental transfusion results in approximately 30% more blood volume. Gravity influences the amount of placental transfusion that an infant receives. Placing the infant skin-to-skin requires a longer delay of cord clamping (DCC) than current recommendations. Uterotonics are not contraindicated with DCC. Cord milking is a safe alternative to DCC when one must cut the cord prematurely. Recent randomized controlled trials demonstrate benefits for term and preterm infants from DCC. The belief that DCC causes hyperbilirubinemia or symptomatic polycythemia is unsupported by the available research. Delay of cord clamping substantively increases iron stores in early infancy. Inadequate iron stores in infancy may have an irreversible impact on the developing brain despite oral iron supplementation. Iron deficiency in infancy can lead to neurologic issues in older children including poor school performance, decreased cognitive abilities, and behavioral problems. The management of the umbilical cord in complex situations is inconsistent between birth settings. A change in practice requires collaboration between all types of providers who attend births.