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gender bias, gender diversity, male nurses, male nursing students, men in nursing, nurses, nursing, nursing education, nursing workplace, sexual diversity, sexual diversity in nursing



  1. MacWilliams, Brent Robert PhD, RN, ANP
  2. Schmidt, Bonnie
  3. Bleich, Michael R. PhD, RN, FAAN


Overview: This literature review examines the ability of the nursing profession to recruit and retain men in nursing schools and in the nursing workforce. The authors consider such educational barriers as role stress, discrimination, and stereotyping, and explore questions of male touch and the capacity of men to care. In identifying challenges faced by men entering or working in a profession in which women predominate, the authors hope to promote actions on the part of nurse leaders, educators, and researchers that may address issues of sex bias and promote greater sexual diversity within nursing.