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  1. Boullata, Joseph I. PharmD, RPh, BCNSP


Trace elements are important nutrients for the critically ill patient. These minerals are routinely included in enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition regimens. There are 5 individual trace elements (chromium, copper, manganese, selenium, and zinc) that are available for intravenous use as separate infusions when necessary based on a thorough clinical assessment. Intravenous administration of trace elements will improve measured biomarkers and may also improve patient outcome. The selected regimen for each trace element is based on the patient presentation and the available evidence.