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  1. Clark, Eloise MPH, MBA
  2. Giambra, Barbara K. MS, RN, CPNP
  3. Hingl, John MBA, RPh
  4. Doellman, Darcy BSN, RN, CRNI(R), VA-BC
  5. Tofani, Barbara MSN, RN
  6. Johnson, Neil MD


Extravasation of medications during peripheral intravenous (PIV) therapy can result in harm to pediatric patients. These medications have physical and/or biologic factors that cause tissue damage. To assist in clinical decisions when using these infusates, an evidence-based table of medications stratified by their relative risk of causing harm if extravasated was developed. Local data and experience, a systematic review of the pediatric literature, and measured pH and osmolality of common pediatric preparations of PIV infusates were used to create a 3-tiered table of PIV infusates categorized by relative risk of causing harm if extravasated.