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clinical manifestations, COPD, pharmacologic update, spirometry



  1. Blair, Kathryn A. PhD, FNP-BC, FAANP
  2. Evelo, Andrew J MA


Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is quickly becoming one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical presentation, spirometry, and pharmacologic management of COPD, as well as the results of a survey examining nurse practitioners' (NPs) knowledge about COPD and its management.