Buy this Article for $7.95

Have a coupon or promotional code? Enter it here:

When you buy this you'll get access to the ePub version, a downloadable PDF, and the ability to print the full article.


  1. Maguire, Denise PhD, RN


There is little empirical evidence that guides management of infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome. The standard of care first described in the 1970s is still prevalent today, although it has never been tested in this population. Standard of care interventions include decreasing external stimulation, holding, nonnutritive sucking, swaddling, pressure/rubbing, and rocking. These interventions meet the goals of nonpharmacologic interventions, which are to facilitate parental attachment and decrease external stimuli. Many nursing interventions used in infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome have been tested in low-birth-weight infants, whose treatment often includes the same goals. Those interventions include music therapy, kangaroo care, massage, and use of nonoscillating water beds. Nursing attitude has also been shown to be impactful on parental attachment. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends breast-feeding in infants whose mothers are on methadone who do not have any other contraindication. It also provides guidelines for pharmacologic management but cannot provide specific recommendations about a standard first dose, escalation, or weaning schedule. Buprenorphine has some evidence about its safety in newborns with neonatal abstinence syndrome, but high-powered studies on its efficacy are currently lacking. There are many opportunities for both evidence-based projects and nursing research projects in this population.