1. Obeidat, Hala M. PhD, RN
  2. Shuriquie, Mona A. PhD, RN


This randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of breast-feeding with maternal holding as compared with maternal holding without breast-feeding in relieving painful responses during heel lance blood drawing in full-term neonates. A convenience sample of 128 full-term newborn infants, in their fourth to sixth days of life, undergoing heel lance blood drawing for screening of hypothyroidism were included in the study. The neonates were randomly assigned into 2 equivalent groups. During heel lance blood drawing for infants, they either breast-fed with maternal holding (group I) or were held in their mother's lap without breast-feeding (group II). The painful responses were assessed simultaneously by 2 neonatal nurses blinded to the purpose of the study. Outcome measures for painful responses of the full-term neonates were evaluated with the Premature Infant Pain Profile scale. Independent t test showed significant differences in Premature Infant Pain Profile scale scores among the 2 groups (t = -8.447, P = .000). Pain scores were significantly lower among infants who were breast-fed in addition to maternal holding. Evidence from this study indicates that the combination of breast-feeding with maternal holding reduces painful responses of full-term infants during heel lance blood drawing.