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[beta]-adrenergic blockers, digoxin, heart failure, guideline, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists



  1. McIlvennan, Colleen K. DNP, ANP
  2. Page, Robert L. II, PharmD, MSPH, FAHA, BCPS


Pharmacologic treatment for systolic heart failure, otherwise known as heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, has been established through clinical trials and is formulated into guidelines to standardize the diagnosis and treatment. Since the introduction of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and vasodilators in the 1980s, many guideline-recommended therapies have emerged over the past 20 years targeting specific neurohormones, aldosterone, and catecholamines to treat heart failure. Part 2 of this series will describe [beta]-blockers, digoxin, and aldosterone antagonists in the context of the mechanism of action in heart failure, investigational trials that showed beneficial effects, and the practical applications for clinical use.