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  1. Durham, Catherine O. DNP, FNP
  2. Harmon, Elizabeth DNP, FNP
  3. Fowler, Terri DNP, FNP


Hematuria is one of the most common presenting urologic conditions in outpatient care and is the term used to describe the presence of RBCs or gross/frank visible blood in the urine.1 This article provides a review of the current evidence-based guidelines and a systematic approach to hematuria in the outpatient primary care setting. The American Urological Association (AUA) defines hematuria as the presence of three or more RBCs per high-powered field in a noncontaminated, properly collected sample without evidence of a benign cause.1 Benign causes include pyuria, bacteriuria, contaminants, menstruation, viral illness, vigorous exercise, and bladder or urologic trauma.