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African American, elderly, male, memory performance, memory self-efficacy



  1. McDougall , Graham J. Jr.
  2. Holston, Ezra C.


Background: Blacks are under-represented in government-funded research. Epidemiological data indicate that morbidity and mortality in the United States are higher in Blacks than in Whites.


Objective: To examine memory performance in a sample of Black and White healthy men 70 years of age and older.


Method: Sixty-nine (24 Black, 45 White) men participated in a study of memory performance. All individuals lived either in private homes or subsidized high-rise apartments.


Results: Black men had higher anxiety about their memories, used fewer internal and external memory strategies, and had less confidence and less understanding of their everyday memory than White men. Based on their depression scores, more Black men (35%) were at risk for depression than White men (10%). Even though there were no differences in the numbers of men who lived alone, White men were five times more likely to be married and live with a spouse (27 vs. 5).


Conclusion: In this sample of Black and White men, there were no differences in actual memory performance, but significant differences were found in the subjective aspects of memory evaluation.