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INTERACT(R), long-term care, nursing homes, organizational change



  1. Tappen, Ruth M. EdD, RN, FAAN
  2. Wolf, David G. PhD, FACHCA, CNHA, CALA, CAS
  3. Rahemi, Zahra PhD, MSN, RN
  4. Engstrom, Gabriella PhD, RN
  5. Rojido, Carolina MD, MHA
  6. Shutes, Jill M. MSN, GNP-BC
  7. Ouslander, Joseph G. MD


Implementation of major organizational change initiatives presents a challenge for long-term care leadership. Implementation of the INTERACT(R) (Interventions to Reduce Acute Care Transfers) quality improvement program, designed to improve the management of acute changes in condition and reduce unnecessary emergency department visits and hospitalizations of nursing home residents, serves as an example to illustrate the facilitators and barriers to major change in long-term care. As part of a larger study of the impact of INTERACT(R) on rates of emergency department visits and hospitalizations, staff of 71 nursing homes were called monthly to follow-up on their progress and discuss successful facilitating strategies and any challenges and barriers they encountered during the yearlong implementation period. Themes related to barriers and facilitators were identified. Six major barriers to implementation were identified: the magnitude and complexity of the change (35%), instability of facility leadership (27%), competing demands (40%), stakeholder resistance (49%), scarce resources (86%), and technical problems (31%). Six facilitating strategies were also reported: organization-wide involvement (68%), leadership support (41%), use of administrative authority (14%), adequate training (66%), persistence and oversight on the part of the champion (73%), and unfolding positive results (14%). Successful introduction of a complex change such as the INTERACT(R) quality improvement program in a long-term care facility requires attention to the facilitators and barriers identified in this report from those at the frontline.