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caring, concept analysis, construct validation, empathy, measurement, nurse-patient relationship



  1. Bennett, Jo Anne RN, PhD


This article updates and extends Jeannette Gagan's "Methodological notes on empathy," published in the January 1983 issue of ANS.The evolving conceptualization of empathy as a complex, intrapsychic, and interpersonal process suggests that the inconclusiveness and apparent contradictions of research to date might be substantially clarified by considering data from a multidimensional perspective. Attention to the conceptual bases underlying diverse measurement approaches is key to understanding the data produced. Notwithstanding the limitations of their paradigms and models for nursing, the debates and knowledge accumulated in other disciplines can inform a broad range of inquiry relevant to nursing.