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  1. Hwang, Ann MD
  2. Garrett, Danielle MPA
  3. Miller, Michael MPP


Two different models of consumer engagement use largely the same language but represent 2 distinct paradigms: the first focuses on patients as partners in health care decision making and the second focuses on financial incentives/penalties for patients. While the 2 paradigms coexist to some degree, they have different implications particularly for populations with complex health and social needs. For these populations, financial barriers can undermine the ability to recognize and promote patients as partners in a system of integrated, coordinated care. We describe these 2 competing visions and their adoption to date and offer our assessment of future directions for consumer engagement.