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enduring, pain, suffering, theory



  1. Morse, Janice M. PhD(Nurs), PhD(Anthro), DNurs(Hon)


This article revises and summarizes the major findings from a research program exploring the behavioral-experiential nature of suffering. Suffering is perceived as comprising two major behavioral states: enduring (in which emotions are suppressed; it is manifested as an emotionless state) and emotional suffering (an overt state of distress in which emotions are released). Individuals who are suffering move back and forth between these two states according to their own needs, their recognition/acknowledgment/acceptance of events, the context, and the needs and responses of others. Implications for the provision of comfort during suffering states are presented.