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fatigue, 12-hour shifts, nurse outcomes, nursing, patient safety, sleep deprivation



  1. Kupperschmidt, Betty


ABSTRACT: Concern is reported about the negative outcomes of 12-hour shifts for nurses, including sleep-deprived fatigue, negative neurobehavioral outcomes, and patient safety. However, 12-hour shifts remain the prevailing staffing method. When should the concern for nurses' health and well-being be factored into staffing decisions? If the 12-hour model was used more wisely, that is, nurses were not working too much and/or too long, would there be a need for change? Will nurses and researchers pursue ways to address the negative outcomes of 12-hour shifts?