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physicians and new careers, physician gender, physician groups, professionalism



  1. Hoff, Timothy J.


Health care researchers and managers have viewed physicians traditionally through three major lenses, that is, as professionals, suppliers, and caregivers. This article makes a case for another lens, that of the physician as worker. The worker perspective complements these existing perspectives, serves as a generative metaphor in raising new assumptions and questions about physicians, and provides physicians with a dimensionality necessary because of increasing diversity within and external to the medical profession.