Buy this Article for $10.95

Have a coupon or promotional code? Enter it here:

When you buy this you'll get access to the ePub version, a downloadable PDF, and the ability to print the full article.


  1. Fotos, Nikolaos V. PhD, MSc, RN
  2. Elefsiniotis, Ioannis PhD
  3. Patelarou, Athina PhD, MSc, RN
  4. Giakoumidakis, Konstantinos PhD, MSc, RN
  5. Patelarou, Evridiki PhD, MSc, RN
  6. Kouros, Andreas MSc, RN
  7. Brokalaki, Hero PhD, RN


Recent research evidence has shown that patients with chronic viral hepatitis develop symptoms of anxiety and/or depression, which has a strong impact on their health-related quality of life. This study aimed to assess the levels of anxiety, depression, and health-related quality of life among patients with chronic hepatitis B or C in Greece. It was a cross-sectional study among 111 patients with chronic viral hepatitis, evaluated at a tertiary General Hospital of Athens from March to September of 2014. Anxiety, depression, and health-related quality of life were assessed by the use of specially designed questionnaires. For the comparison between patients' population and general population, a pair-matched population of 111 healthy participants was recruited. Mean age of patients was 44.85 years (SD = 14.4). Fifty-nine patients were infected by hepatitis B virus and 52 by hepatitis C virus. Levels of anxiety and depression were higher among patients than among controls and the overall health-related quality of life was poorer (p < .001). Female gender and liver parenchyma damage were associated with higher levels of anxiety (p < .05). Certain demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical-serological factors were related with higher levels of depression. Poorer health-related quality of life was reported by patients with liver cirrhosis and alanine aminotransferase of 40 IU/L or more. Patients with chronic viral hepatitis demonstrate psychological and physical impairment, especially those with advance liver disease and/or active viral activity.