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  1. Heinz, Diane RN, MS, CCRN, MAJ


An aging nursing workforce, decreased enrollment in nursing schools, financial constraints in healthcare, hospital restructuring and reengineering, and consistent challenges in nursing recruitment and retention have contributed to shortages within the hospital-based nursing workforce. The effects of these shortages have been thought to be associated with various adverse patient outcomes. This article reviews current research studies and presents recommendations for ongoing nursing practice.