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acute myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, disparities, women



  1. Romero, Tomas MD
  2. Greenwood, Kristina L. PhD
  3. Glaser, Dale PhD


Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) sex disparities in management and outcomes have long been attributed to multiple factors, although questions regarding their relevance have not been fully addressed.


Objective: The aim of this study was to identify current factors associated with sex-related AMI management and outcomes disparities in hospitals with comparable quality care standards.


Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 299 women and 540 men with AMI discharged in 2013 from 3 southern California hospitals with tertiary cardiac care. Outcomes (adjusted by demographic/clinical variables using multiple logistic regression) included mortality (in-hospital, 30 days), 30-day readmissions, invasive/revascularization procedures, and quality medication performance measures (aspirin, statins/antilipids, [beta]-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, <90-minute door-balloon time).


Results: Performance was similar to the top 10% National Inpatient Quality AMI Measures. Women had similar mortality, 30-day readmission rates, and performance on medication quality measures compared with men; readmissions were higher in patients with County Services/Medicaid or no medical insurance regardless of sex. Women had similar cardiac catheterization and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction percutaneous coronary intervention rates but significantly less percutaneous coronary intervention for non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (39.1% vs 52.1%, P = .008) and coronary artery bypass graft (6.7% vs 14.1%, P < .001) than men.


Conclusions: Women with AMI had similar early mortality, 30-day readmissions and quality performance measures compared with men across hospitals with current quality care standards. Type of medical insurance influenced readmission rates for both sexes. Sex disparities in coronary revascularization procedures were likely determined by differences in AMI type and coronary disease vascular expression.