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* Registration deadline is December 3, 2021.




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Provider Accreditation

Lippincott Professional Development will award 1.5 contact hours for this continuing nursing education activity.


Lippincott Professional Development is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation.


This activity is also provider approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider Number CEP 11749 for 1.5 contact hours. LPD is also an approved provider of continuing nursing education by the District of Columbia, Georgia, and Florida CE Broker #50-1223.


The ANCC's accreditation status of Lippincott Professional Development refers only to its continuing nursing educational activities and does not imply Commission on Accreditation approval or endorsement of any commercial product.


Disclosure Statement

The authors and planners have disclosed that they have no significant relationship with or financial interest in any commercial companies that pertain to this educational activity.



General Purpose: To provide information from a metasynthesis identifying factors that influence lesbian women's health care experiences.

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Learning Objectives/Outcomes: After completing this continuing education activity, you should be able to:


1. Outline the metasynthesis process and its value and application in this study.


2. Identify elements contributing to affirming and trusting patient care milieus.



1. Which statement is accurate concerning studies of lesbian women's health care experiences?


a. Most research has been qualitative in design.


b. Quantitative studies best capture the essence of these experiences.


c. This metasynthesis integrates and interprets qualitative factors.


2. Which isnota goal of increased insight into these experiences?


a. to learn about the health care providers' perspective on caring for lesbian women


b. to create affirming environments to support lesbian women


c. to encourage nurses to educate others on culturally appropriate approaches


3. In contrast to recent findings, data from the 1980s and 1990s


a. indicated limited homophobia among health care providers.


b. showed lesbian women had predominantly negative health care encounters.


c. revealed few heteronormative assumptions among health care providers.


4. Of the qualitative studies in the metasynthesis,


a. the majority were published outside the United States.


b. the most common research design was focus groups and interviews.


c. the majority were done by nurse researchers.


5. According to Noblit and Hare (1988), the final goal of synthesizing translations is to


a. identify refutational accounts.


b. show that the whole is more than the sum of the parts.


c. maintain the central metaphors and concepts of each account.


6. Lesbian women formed an impression of each visit based on


a. the care environment and interactions.


b. their comfort in disclosing their sexual orientation.


c. the presence of their partner during the visit.


7. Which isnotone of the overarching themes examined by this metasynthesis?


a. acknowledging my partner


b. sizing up the provider and environment


c. demonstrating culturally affirming behaviors


8. Which is a protective measure employed by lesbian women?


a. negotiating barriers in the health care system


b. not seeking traditional health care services


c. seeking only providers who are heterosexual


9. Which of these factors might increase the chance of a negative encounter with a prospective provider?


a. history form focused on heteronormative questions


b. affirming signage posted in the waiting room


c. opportunity to disclose sexual orientation on intake form


10. Lesbian women reported positive feelings about their care when


a. the provider was attentive to their concerns.


b. the provider was uninformed about their health needs.


c. they felt disconnected with the provider.


11. The paradoxical nature of self-disclosure


a. suggests that not all women should "come out" to their provider.


b. is highly individualized on the basis of past experiences.


c. means that women should disclose only when asked.


12. Which question indicates a heteronormative approach?


a. Do you have a bed partner?


b. Are you the child's parent?


c. Do you use birth control?


13. In which situation would a lesbian woman most likely feel forced to self-disclose?


a. The provider assumes no sexual activity if she is still a virgin.


b. The provider asks about sexual satisfaction.


c. The provider makes her feel safe and empowered.


14. Which measure is affirming of the partner?


a. having partner stay in the waiting room


b. not introducing the partner in antenatal classes


c. shaking hands with both partners


15. Prior to January 2011, same-sex couples in the United States


a. were prevented by law from making health care decisions on the other's behalf.


b. were never allowed to visit their hospitalized partner.


c. viewed health care providers' interactions more positively.


16. To be perceived as affirming, the practice environment


a. must include safe zone signs in all rooms.


b. includes reception staff who demonstrate culturally appropriate care.


c. should focus primarily on lesbian women.


17. It is important to use inclusive language on intake forms to


a. make patients comfortable sharing information about sexual orientation.


b. disclose this information to staff and future providers.


c. prevent providers making heteronormative assumptions.


18. Perceived prejudice toward lesbian women by health care providers can result in all the followingexcept


a. delay or avoidance of care.


b. conversion to heterosexuality.


c. health disparities.