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Health literacy, mHealth, Migrants, Mobile applications, Quasi-experimental study



  1. Fernandez-Gutierrez, Martina PhD, MNursSci
  2. Bas-Sarmiento, Pilar PhD, MSc
  3. Poza-Mendez, Miriam PhD, MSc, RN


Health literacy is a social determinant of the basic health of populations and is especially important to enhancing and developing the empowerment of migrant populations. To evaluate the effectiveness of an mHealth intervention to improve the cognitive and social skills that enable migrants to access and use health services, we developed a quasi-experimental design to encompass a single group of enrolled immigrants (N = 93). They completed preintervention and postintervention questionnaires of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire, the self-created questionnaire HL-APP-Q14 (Health Literacy App Questionnaire), and a practical simulation test. Health literacy improved significantly after the intervention, increasing from a problematic level (mean, 9.55 [SD, 4.35]) to a sufficient level (mean, 14.03 [SD, 2.68]). Differences were statistically significant for males and females as well as for participants of all nationalities, except the Chinese group. The application e_SaludAble empowered the migrant participants through the improvement of their health literacy.