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communication, empathy, incivility, nursing education, online classroom, online learning environment



  1. Swartzwelder, Kay
  2. Clements, Paul
  3. Holt, Karyn
  4. Childs, Gary


ABSTRACT: Confronting incivility in the online classroom can significantly benefit from spiritual approaches that address behaviors on a continuum of mild to aggressive. This may include the need to intervene when covert or overt threats occur. Electronic communications can lead to misperceptions and misunderstandings between students and faculty. Lack of understanding of diverse cultures, life experiences, and professional and spiritual histories can lead to behaviors that are perceived as intentionally hostile when, in fact, they are not. It is important in the online classroom to differentiate between the two and establish expected virtual classroom behaviors.