1. Sauberan, Jason PharmD

Article Content



I. Overview


A. Clark RH, Bloom BT, Gerstmann DR Medications Used in Neonatal Intensive Care Units-A Descriptive Study [abstract 3047]. In: Program and abstracts of the 2004 Pediatric Academic Societies' Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.


B. Barr J, Brenner-Zada G, Heiman E, Pareth G, Bulkowstein M, Greenberg R, Berkovitch M. Unlicensed and off-label medication use in a neonatal intensive care unit: a prospective study. Am J Perinatol. 2002 Feb;19(2):67-72.


C. O'Donnell CP, Stone RJ, Morley CJ. Unlicensed and off-label drug use in an Australian neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatrics. 2002 Nov;110(5):e52.


D. Committee on Drugs. American Academy of Pediatrics. Uses of drugs not described in the package insert (off-label uses). Pediatrics. 2002 Jul;110(1 Pt 1):181-3.


II. Anti-infectives


A. Linezolid


1. Deville JG, Adler S, Azimi PH, Jantausch BA, Morfin MR, Beltran S, Edge-Padbury B, Naberhuis-Stehouwer S, Bruss JB. Linezolid versus vancomycin in the treatment of known or suspected resistant gram-positive infections in neonates. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003 Sep;22(9 Suppl):S158-63.


2. Vo M, Cirincione BB, Rubino CM, Jungbluth GL. Pharmacokinetics of Linezolid in Neonates and Young Infants [abstract A-1409]. In: Program and abstracts of the 42nd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, San Diego, CA. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology, 2002.


B. Cefepime


1. Bradley J. The Safety And Efficacy Of Cefepime In Pediatrics-Introduction. Pediatr Infect Dis J. March 2001;20(3):329-330.


2. Kessler RE. Cefepime microbiologic profile and update. Pediatr Infect Dis J. March 2001;20(3):331-336.


3. Blumer JL, Reed MD, Knupp C. Review of the pharmacokinetics of cefepime in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. March 2001;20(3):337-342.


4. Capparelli EV, Rasmussen M, Bradley JS. Population Pharmacokinetics of Cefepime in Newborn Infants [abstract 2263]. In: Program and abstracts of the 2004 Pediatric Academic Societies' Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.


C. Caspofungin


1. Franklin JA, McCormick J, Flynn PM. Retrospective study of the safety of caspofungin in immunocompromised pediatric patients. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003 Aug;22(8):747-8.


2. Walsh TJ, Adamson PC, Seibel NL et al. Pharmacokinetics of caspofungin in pediatric patients [abstract M-896]. In: Program and abstracts of the 42nd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, San Diego, CA. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology, 2002; 395.


3. Letscher-Bru V, Herbrecht R. Caspofungin: the first representative of a new antifungal class. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003 Mar;51(3):513-21.


D. Voriconazole


1. Maples HD, Stowe CD, Saccente SL, Jacobs RF. Voriconazole serum concentrations in an infant treated for trichosporon beigelii infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Nov 2003;22(11):1022-24.


2. Walsh TJ, Lutsar I, Driscoll T, et al. Voriconazole in the treatment of aspergillosis, scedosporiosis and other invasive fungal infections in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002;21: 240-8.


3. Gothard P, Rogers TR. Voriconazole for serious fungal infections. Int J Clin Pract. 2004 Jan;58(1):74-80.


E. Neonatal Candidiasis review: Bliss JM, Wellington M, Gigliotti F. Antifungal pharmacotherapy for neonatal candidiasis. Semin Perinatol. 2003 Oct;27(5):365-74.


F. Meropenem


1. van Enk JG, Touw DJ, Lafeber HN. Pharmacokinetics of meropenem in preterm neonates. Ther Drug Monit. 2001 Jun;23(3):198-201.


2. Bradley JS, Faulkner KL, Klaugman KP. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of meropenem as empiric antibiotic therapy in hospitalized pediatric patients. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1996 Aug;15(8):749-57.


3. Bradley JS. Meropenem: a new, extremely broad spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic for serious infections in pediatrics. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1997 Mar;16(3):263-8.


G. Aminoglycosides (gentamicin or tobramycin)


1. de Hoog M, van Zanten BA, Hop WC, Overbosch E, Weisglas-Kuperus N, van den Anker JN. Newborn hearing screening: tobramycin and vancomycin are not risk factors for hearing loss. J Pediatr. 2003 Jan;142(1):41-6. What does the older research say?


2. Knight JA, Davis EM, Manouilov K, Hoie EB. The effect of postnatal age on gentamicin pharmacokinetics in neonates. Pharmacotherapy. 2003 Aug;23(8):992-6.


3. Avent ML, Kinney JS, Istre GR, Whitfield JM. Gentamicin and tobramycin in neonates: comparison of a new extended dosing interval regimen with a traditional multiple daily dosing regimen. Am J Perinatol. 2002 Nov;19(8):413-20.


4. Young TE. Aminoglycoside Therapy in Neonates. Neoreviews 2002;3:243-248


5. DiCenzo R, Forrest A, Slish JC, Cole C, Guillet R. A gentamicin pharmacokinetic population model and once-daily dosing algorithm for neonates. Pharmacotherapy. 2003 Aug;23(5):585-91.


H. Vancomycin


1. Capparelli EV, Lane JR, Romanowski GL, McFeely EJ, Murray W, Sousa P, Kildoo C, Connor JD. The influences of renal function and maturation on vancomycin elimination in newborns and infants. J Clin Pharmacol. 2001 Sep;41(9):927-34.


2. Tan WH, Brown N, Kelsall AW, McClure RJ. Dose regimen for vancomycin not needing serum peak levels?Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2002 Nov;87(3):F214-6.


3. Shackley F, Roberts P, Heath P, et al. Trough-only monitoring of serum vancomycin concentrations in neonates. J Antimicrob Chemother 1998;41:141-2.


4. Struthers S, Underhill H, Albersheim S, Greenberg D, Dobson S. A comparison of two versus one blood culture in the diagnosis and treatment of coagulase-negative staphylococcus in the neonatal intensive care unit. J Perinatol. 2002 Oct-Nov;22(7):547-9.


5. Rubin LG, Sanchez PJ, Siegel J, Levine G, Saiman L, Jarvis WR; Pediatric Prevention Network. Evaluation and treatment of neonates with suspected late-onset sepsis: a survey of neonatologists' practices. Pediatrics. 2002 Oct;110(4):e42.


6. Dawson PM. Vancomycin and gentamicin in neonates: hindsight, current controversies, and forethought. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs. 2002 Sep;16(2):54-72. Good one for the reference list.


I. Rifampin


1. Shama A, Patole SK, Whitehall JS. Intravenous rifampicin in neonates with persistent staphylococcal bacteraemia. Acta Paediatr. 2002;91(6):670-3.


2. Tan TQ, Mason EO Jr, Ou CN, Kaplan SL. Use of intravenous rifampin in neonates with persistent staphylococcal bacteremia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1993 Nov;37(11):2401-6.




1. Mohan PV, Tarnow-Mordi W, Stenson B, Brocklehurst P, Haque K, Cavendish V, Cust A. Can polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulin limit cytokine mediated cerebral damage and chronic lung disease in preterm infants? Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2004 Jan;89(1):F5-8.


2. Suri M, Harrison L, Van de Ven C, Cairo MS. Immunotherapy in the prophylaxis and treatment of neonatal sepsis. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2003 Apr;15(2):155-60.


3. INIS, the international neonatal immunotherapy study


K. Xigris(R)


1. Rawicz M, Sitkowska B, Rudzinska I, Kornacka MK, Bochenski P. Recombinant human activated protein C for severe sepsis in a neonate. Med Sci Monit. 2002 Nov;8(11):CS90-4.




1. Public Health Service Task Force Recommendations for Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant HIV-1-Infected Women for Maternal Health and Interventions to Reduce Perinatal HIV-1 Transmission in the United States. Nov 26, 2003.


2. Efficacy of three short-course regimens of zidovudine and lamivudine in preventing early and late transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child in Tanzania, South Africa, and Uganda (Petra study): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2002 Apr 6;359(9313):1178-86.


3. Brocklehurst P, Volmink J Antiretrovirals for reducing the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2003. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


4. Short postexposure prophylaxis in newborn babies to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1: NVAZ randomised clinical trial. Taha TE, Kumwenda NI, Gibbons A, Broadhead RL, Fiscus S, Lema V, Liomba G, Nkhoma C, Miotti PG, Hoover DR. Lancet. 2003 Oct 11;362(9391):1171-7.


5. Vyankandondera J, Luchters S, Hassink E, et al. Reducing risk of HIV-1 transmission from mother to infant through breastfeeding using antiretroviral prophylaxis in infants (SIMBA study). Program and abstracts of the 2nd IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment; July 13-16, 2003; Paris, France. Abstract LB7.


a. Crabb C. Breastfeeding and HIV transmission AIDS 2003; 17(17):N13- N14.


b. HPTN 023 Study Group. Population Pharmacokinetics of Low Dose Nevirapine (NVP) for Prevention of Breast Milk HIV Transmission in Infants from Birth Through 6 Months of Age [abstract 1876]. In: Program and abstracts of the 2004 Pediatric Academic Societies' Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.


6. AZT.


a. Capparelli EV, Englund JA, Connor JD, Spector SA, McKinney RE, Palumbo P, Baker CJ. Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of zidovudine in HIV-infected infants and children. J Clin Pharmacol. 2003 Feb;43(2):133-40.


b. Capparelli EV, Mirochnick M, Dankner WM, Blanchard S, Mofenson L, McSherry GD, Gay H, Ciupak G, Smith B, Connor JD; Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 331 Investigators. Pharmacokinetics and tolerance of zidovudine in preterm infants. J Pediatr. 2003 Jan;142(1):47-52.


7. 3TC


a. Capparelli EV, et al. Lamuvidine Pharmacokinetics in Infants-A Population Analysis Across Studies [abstract 1865] In: Program and abstracts of the 2004 Pediatric Academic Societies' Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.


8. Nelfinavir


a. Capparelli EV, Sullivan JL, Mofenson L, Smith E, Graham B, Britto P, Becker MI, Holland D, Connor JD, Luzuriaga K; Pediatric ACTG 356 Investigators. Pharmacokinetics of nelfinavir in human immunodeficiency virus-infected infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001 Aug;20(8):746-51.


9. Katz A. The evolving art of caring for pregnant women with HIV infection. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2003 Jan-Feb;32(1):102-8.




1. Zonneveld M, Nunen AB, Niesters HGM, Man RA, Schalm SW, Janssen HLA. Lamivudine treatment during pregnancy to prevent perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection. Journal of Viral Hepatitis 2003; 10(4):294-297.




1. ACOG Committee Opinion: number 279, December 2002. Prevention of early-onset group B streptococcal disease in newborns. Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Dec;100(6):1405-12.


2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention of Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease. MMWR 2002;51(No. RR-11).


3. Pearlman M. Prevention of early-onset group B streptococcal disease in newborns. Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Aug;102(2):414-5.


4. Heelan JS, Hasenbein ME, McAdam AJ. Resistance of group B streptococcus to selected antibiotics, including erythromycin and clindamycin. J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Mar;42(3):1263-4.


5. Sinha A, Yokoe D, Platt R. Intrapartum antibiotics and neonatal invasive infections caused by organisms other than group B streptococcus. J Pediatr. 2003 May;142(5):492-7.


6. Alarcon A, PeNa P, Salas S, Sancha M, OmeNaca F. Neonatal early onset Escherichia coli sepsis: trends in incidence and antimicrobial resistance in the era of intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004 Apr;23(4):295-299.


7. Byington CL, Rittichier KK, Bassett KE, Castillo H, Glasgow TS, Daly J, Pavia AT. Serious bacterial infections in febrile infants younger than 90 days of age: the importance of ampicillin-resistant pathogens. Pediatrics. 2003 May;111(5 Pt 1):964-8.


8. Moore MR, Schrag SJ, Schuchat A. Effects of intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis for prevention of group-B-streptococcal disease on the incidence and ecology of early-onset neonatal sepsis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2003 Apr;3(4):201-13.


9. Facchinetti F, Piccinini F, Mordini B, Volpe A. Chlorhexidine vaginal flushings versus systemic ampicillin in the prevention of vertical transmission of neonatal group B streptococcus, at term. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2002 Feb;11(2):84-8.


10. Baker CJ, Rench MA, Fernandez M, Paoletti LC, Kasper DL, Edwards MS. Safety and immunogenicity of a bivalent group B streptococcal conjugate vaccine for serotypes II and III. J Infect Dis. 2003 Jul 1;188(1):66-73.


11. Baker CJ, Paoletti LC, Rench MA, Guttormsen HK, Edwards MS, Kasper DL. Immune response of healthy women to 2 different group B streptococcal type V capsular polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines. J Infect Dis. 2004 Mar 15;189(6):1103-12.


12. Baker CJ, Rench MA, McInnes P. Immunization of pregnant women with group B streptococcal type III capsular polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine. Vaccine. 2003 Jul 28;21(24):3468-72.


III. Immunologicals


A. Pediarix


1. PEDIARIX(TM) [Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed, Hepatitis B (Recombinant) and Inactivates Poliovirus Vaccine Combined] Prescribing information. SmithKline Beecham Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium, December 2002.


2. Yeh SH, Ward JI, Partridge S, et al. Safety immunogenicity of a pentavalent diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and polio combination vaccine in infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001 Oct;20(10):973-80.


3. Zepp F, Schuind A, Meyer C, Sanger R, Kaufhold A, Willems P. Safety and reactogenicity of a novel DTPa-HBV-IPV combined vaccine given along with commercial Hib vaccines in comparison with separate concomitant administration of DTPa, Hib, and OPV vaccines in infants. Pediatrics. 2002 Apr;109(4):e58.


4. Notice to Readers: FDA Licensure of Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed, Hepatitis B (Recombinant), and Poliovirus Vaccine Combined, (PEDIARIX(TM)) for Use in Infants MMWR March 14, 2003/52(10);203-204.


B. Rotavirus vaccine


1. Clark HF, Bernstein DI, Dennehy PH, et al Safety, Efficacy, and Immunogenicity of a Live, Quadrivalent Human-Bovine Reassortant Rotavirus Vaccine in Healthy Infants. J Pediatrics. 2004;114(2):184-190.


2. VesikariT, et al. The Effect of Dose and Composition of a Pentavalent Rotavirus Reassortant Vaccine (RotaTeq(TM)) upon Safety, Efficacy, and Immunogenicity in Healthy Infants [abstract 1755]. In: 2003 Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting Program with Abstracts-On-Line, Marathon Multimedia, 2003.


3. Orellana C. Rotavirus vaccine shows promise. Lancet Infect Dis. 2003 Jul;3(7): 396.


C. Synagis


1. Feltes TM, Cabala AK, Meissner HC, et al. Palivizumab prophylaxis reduces hospitalization due to respiratory syncytial virus in young children with hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease. J Pediatr. 2003;143(4):532-540.


2. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases and Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Revised indications for the use of palivizumab and respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin intravenous for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infections. Pediatrics. 2003 Dec;112(6 Pt 1):1442-52.


3. Pedraz C, Carbonell-Estrany X, Figueras-Aloy J, Quero J. Effect of palivizumab prophylaxis in decreasing respiratory syncytial virus hospitalizations in premature infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003 Sep;22(9):823-7.


IV. Methylxanthines/Doxapram


A. Gannon BA. Theophylline or caffeine: which is best for apnea of prematurity? Neonatal Netw. 2000 Dec;19(8):33-6.


B. Caffeine


1. Erenberg A, Leff RD, Haack DG, Mosdell KW, Hicks GM, Wynne BA. Caffeine citrate for the treatment of apnea of prematurity: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Jun;20(6):644-52.


2. Schmidt B. Methylxanthine therapy in premature infants: sound practice, disaster or fruitless byway? J Pediatr. 1999; 135:526-8.


3. Millar D, Schmidt B. Controversies surrounding xanthine therapy. Semin Neonatol. 2004 Jun;9(3):239-44.


4. Steer PA, Flenady VJ, Shearman A, Lee TC, Tudehope DI, Charles BG. Periextubation caffeine in preterm neonates: a randomized dose response trial. J Paediatr Child Health. 2003 Sep-Oct;39(7):511-5.


5. Bauer J, Maier K, Linderkamp O, Hentschel R. Effect of caffeine on oxygen consumption and metabolic rate in very low birth weight infants with idiopathic apnea. Pediatrics. 2001 Apr;107(4):660-3.


6. Hoecker C, Nelle M, Poeschl J, Beedgen B, Linderkamp O. Caffeine impairs cerebral and intestinal blood flow velocity in preterm infants. Pediatrics. 2002 May;109(5):784-7.


a. Bell MS, Rajani KB. Caffeine dosage in preemies questioned. Pediatrics. 2003 Oct;112(4):1000 (comment on above article).


C. Doxapram


1. Dani C, et al. Brain Hemodynamic Effects of Doxapram in Preterm Infants [abstract 2421]. In: Program and abstracts of the 2004 Pediatric Academic Societies' Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.


2. Maillard C, Boutroy MJ, Fresson J, Barbe F, Hascoet JM. QT interval lengthening in premature infants treated with doxapram. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2001 Dec;70(6):540-5.


3. Sreenan C, Etches PC, Demianczuk N, Robertson CM. Isolated mental developmental delay in very low birth weight infants: Association with prolonged doxapram therapy for apnea. J Pediatr 2001;139:832-7.


4. Yamazaki T, Kajiwara M, Itahashi K, Fujimura M. Low-dose doxapram therapy for idiopathic apnea of prematurity. Pediatr Int. 2001 Apr;43(2):124-7.


5. Henderson-Smart DJ, Steer PA. Doxapram treatment for apnea in preterm infants (Cochrane Review 16 July 2001). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2004. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


D. Pentoxifylline


1. Lauterbach R, Pawlik D, Kowalczyk D, et al. Effect of the immuno-modulatory agent pentoxifylline in the treatment of sepsis in prematurely delivered infants: a placebo controlled double-blind trial. Crit Care Med 1999;27:807-14.


2. Lauterbach R, Szymura-Oleksiak J. Nebulized pentoxifylline in successful treatment of five premature neonates with broncho-pulmonary dysplasia. Eur J Pediatr. 1999;158:607.


3. Eyal FG, O'Donnell KT, Michael ZM, Hamm CR. Pentoxifylline and Allopurinol Preserve Intestinal Mucosal Blood Flow Following an Ischemia/Reperfusion Insult [abstract 2752]. In: Program and abstracts of the 2004 Pediatric Academic Societies' Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.


V. Corticosteroids


A. Lungs


1. Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Postnatal corticosteroids to treat or prevent chronic lung disease in preterm infants. Pediatrics 2002 Feb;109:330-338.


2. Stark AR, et al. Adverse effects of early dexamethasone in extremely-low-birth-weight infants. N Engl J Med. 2001 Jan 11;344(2):95-101.


3. Yeh TF, et al. Outcomes at School Age after Postnatal Dexamethasone Therapy for Lung Disease of Prematurity N Engl J Med 2004;350:1304-13.


4. Lodygensky G, Rademaker K, Zimine S, Lazeyras F, Groenendaal F, de Vries L, Huppi PS. Longterm Neurodevelopmental and Neurostructural Outcome After Postnatal Hydrocortisone Treatment for Chronic Lung Disease [abstract 2690]. In: Program and abstracts of the 2004 Pediatric Academic Societies' Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.


5. Collaborative Study Dexamethasone. Follow-up of 11-15 y/o


6. van der Heide-Jalving M, Kamphuis PJ, van der Laan MJ, Bakker JM, Wiegant VM, Heijnen CJ, Veen S, van Bel F. Short- and long-term effects of neonatal glucocorticoid therapy: is hydrocortisone an alternative to dexamethasone? Acta Paediatr. 2003 Jul;92(7):827-35.


7. de Vries WB, et al. Cardiac Function at 8 Years of Age After Neonatal Glucocorticosteroid Treatment [abstract 2974] In: Program and abstracts of the 2004 Pediatric Academic Societies' Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.


8. Karemaker R, ter Steeg CDJ, Veen S, van Bel F, Heijnen CJ. Long Term Effects of Neonatal Corticosteroid Exposure on 8-Year Old Exprematures on the Immune System [abstract 2735]. In: Program and abstracts of the 2004 Pediatric Academic Societies' Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.


9. BakkerJM, van Bel F, Heijnen CJ. Neonatal glucocorticoids and the developing brain:short-term treatment with life-long consequences? TINS Nov 2001;24(11):649-653.


10. Grier DG, Halliday HL. Corticosteroids in the prevention and management of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Semin Neonatol. 2003 Feb;8(1):83-91.


11. Watterberg KL. Adrenocortical function and dysfunction in the fetus and neonate. Semin Neonatol. 2004 Feb;9(1):13-21.


12. Washburn LK, Nixon PA, Oshea TM. Follow Up of a Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial of Postnatal Dexamethasone: Cognitive Function and Adaptive Behavior, Blood Pressure and Growth at 8-10 Years of Age [abstracts 2112 and 2122]. In: Program and abstracts of the 2004 Pediatric Academic Societies' Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.


B. Steroids and BP


1. Gaissmaier RE, Pohlandt F. Single-dose dexamethasone treatment of hypotension in preterm infants. J Pediatr. 1999 Jun;134(6):701-5.


2. Kopelman AE, Moise AA, Holbert D, Hegemier SE. A single very early dexamethasone dose improves respiratory and cardiovascular adaptation in preterm infants. J Pediatr. 1999 Sep;135(3):345-50.


3. Noori S, Friedlich P, Ebrahimi M, Wong P, Siassi B, Seri I. Cardiovascular Effects of Low-Dose Hydrocortisone in Preterm and Term Infants with Pressor-Resistant Hypotension [abstract 3119]. In: Program and abstracts of the 2004 Pediatric Academic Societies' Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.


4. Seri I, Tan R, Evans J. Cardiovascular effects of hydrocortisone in preterm infants with pressor-resistant hypotension. Pediatrics. 2001 May;107(5):1070-4.


5. Seri I, Evans JR. Why do steroids increase blood pressure in preterm infants? J Pediatr. 2000 Mar;136(3):420-1.


6. Seri I, Evans J. Controversies in the diagnosis and management of hypotension in the newborn infant. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2001 Apr;13(2):116-23.


7. Kissack CM, Garr R, Wardle SP, Weindling A. Cerebral Fractional Oxygen Extraction in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Is High When There Is Low Left Ventricular Output and Hypocarbia but Is Unaffected by Hypotension. Pediatr Res. 2004 Mar;55(3):400-5.


VI. Analgesics


A. Circumcision


1. Yawman D, Howard CR, Garfunkel LC, Allan M, Nguyen M, Weitzman M. Neonatal Circumcision and Pain Relief: A Follow-Up of Training Practices [abstract 1154]. In: Program and abstracts of the 2004 Pediatric Academic Societies' Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.


2. Kraft NL. A pictorial and video guide to circumcision without pain. Adv Neonatal Care. 2003 Apr;3(2):50-62.


3. Litman RS. Anesthesia and analgesia for newborn circumcision. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2001 Feb;56(2):114-7.


4. ACOG Committee Opinion. Circumcision. Number 260, October 2001. Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Oct;98(4):707-8.


5. Kass FC, Holman JR. Oral glucose solution for analgesia in infant circumcision. J Fam Pract. 2001 Sep;50(9):785-8.


6. Kaufman GE, Cimo S, Miller LW, Blass EM. An evaluation of the effects of sucrose on neonatal pain with 2 commonly used circumcision methods. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Mar;186(3):564-8.


7. Stolik-Dollberg OC, Dollberg S. Bupivacaine Versus Lidocaine Analgesia for Neonatal Circumcision [abstract 2935]. In: Program and abstracts of the 2004 Pediatric Academic Societies' Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.


8. Malnory M, Johnson TS, Kirby RS. Newborn behavioral and physiological responses to circumcision. Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2003 Sep-Oct;28(5):313-7.


B. NICU Analgesia


1. Clonidine prolongs spinal anesthesia in newborns: a prospective dose-ranging study. Anesth Analg. 2004 Jan;98(1):56-9.


2. Miller SM, Juul SE, Smith K. Management of Pain and Agitation in the Critically Ill Preterm Infant: A Survey of Current Practices [abstract 2939]. In: Program and abstracts of the 2004 Pediatric Academic Societies' Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.


3. Rogers AJ, Greenwald MH, Simon HK. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Sucrose Analgesia for Children Less Than 90 Days of Age Undergoing Bladder Catheterization in the Pediatric ED [abstract 738]. In: Program and abstracts of the 2004 Pediatric Academic Societies' Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.


4. Anderson BJ, van Lingen RA, Hansen TG, Lin YC, Holford NH. Acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates and infants: a pooled population analysis. Anesthesiology. 2002 Jun;96(6):1336-45.


5. Allegaert K, Anderson BJ, Naulaers G, De Hoon J, Verbesselt R, Debeer A, Devlieger H, Tibboel D. Intravenous paracetamol (propacetamol) pharmacokinetics in term and preterm neonates. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2004 Apr 8




A. Lago P, Bettiol T, Salvadori S, et al. Safety and efficacy of ibuprofen versus indomethacin in preterm infants treated for patent ductus arteriosus: a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Pediatr 2002;161:202-7.


B. Supapannachart S, Limrungsikul A, Khowsathit P. Oral ibuprofen and indomethacin for treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants: a randomized trial at Ramathibodi Hospital. J Med Assoc Thai 2002;85(suppl 4):S1252-8.


C. Heyman E, Morag I, Batash D, Keidar R, Baram S, Berkovitch M. Closure of patent ductus arteriosus with oral ibuprofen suspension in premature newborns: a pilot study. Pediatrics. 2003 Nov;112(5):e354.


D. Sharma PK, Garg SK, Narang A. Pharmacokinetics of oral ibuprofen in premature infants. J Clin Pharmacol. 2003 Sep;43(9):968-73.


E. Chotigeat U, Jirapapa K, Layangkool T. A comparison of oral ibuprofen and intravenous indomethacin for closure of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants. J Med Assoc Thai. 2003 Aug;86 Suppl 3:S563-9.


F. Hariprasad P, Sundarrajan V, Srimathy G, Suthagar B, Ramadevi BS. Oral Ibuprofen for Closure of Hemodynamically Significant PDA in Premature Neonates. Indian Pediatrics 2002;39:99-100.


G. Van Overmeire B, Smets K, Lecoutere D, Van de Broek H, Weyler J, Degroote K, Langhendries JP. A comparison of ibuprofen and indomethacin for closure of patent ductus arteriosus. N Engl J Med. 2000 Sep 7;343(10):674-81.


H. De Carolis MP, Romagnoli C, Polimeni V, Piersigilli F, Zecca E, Papacci P, Delogu AB, Tortorolo G. Prophylactic ibuprofen therapy of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants. Eur J Pediatr. 2000 May;159(5):364-8.


I. Patel J, Roberts I, Azzopardi D, Hamilton P, Edwards AD. Randomized double-blind controlled trial comparing the effects of ibuprofen with indomethacin on cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants with patent ductus arteriosus. Pediatr Res. 2000 Jan;47(1):36-42.


J. Romagnoli C, De Carolis MP, Papacci P, Polimeni V, Luciano R, Piersigilli F, Delogu AB, Tortorolo G. Effects of prophylactic ibuprofen on cerebral and renal hemodynamics in very preterm neonates. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2000 Jun;67(6):676- 83.


K. Pezzati M, Vangi V, Biagiotti R, Bertini G, Cianciulli D, Rubaltelli FF. Effects of indomethacin and ibuprofen on mesenteric and renal blood flow in preterm infants with patent ductus arteriosus. J Pediatr. 1999 Dec;135(6):733-8.


L. Shaffer CL, Gal P, Ransom JL, Carlos RQ, Smith MS, Davey AM, Dimaguila MA, Brown YL, Schall SA. Effect of age and birth weight on indomethacin pharmacodynamics in neonates treated for patent ductus arteriosus. Crit Care Med. 2002 Feb;30(2): 343-8.


M. Schmidt B, Davis P, Moddemann D, Ohlsson A, Roberts RS, Saigal S, Solimano A, Vincer M, Wright LL. Long-term effects of indomethacin prophylaxis in extremely-low-birth-weight infants. N Engl J Med. 2001 Jun 28;344(26):1966-72.


N. Schmidt B, Asztalos EV, Roberts RS, Robertson CM, Sauve RS, Whitfield MF; Trial of Indomethacin Prophylaxis in Preterms (TIPP) Investigators. Impact of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, brain injury, and severe retinopathy on the outcome of extremely low-birth-weight infants at 18 months: results from the trial of indomethacin prophylaxis in preterms. JAMA. 2003 Mar 5;289(9):1124-9.


O. Al Faleh K, Smyth JA, Roberts RS, Solimano A, Asztalos EV, Schmidt B. Prevention and 18-Month Outcome of Serious Pulmonary Hemorrhage in Extremely-Low-Birth-Weight (ELBW) Infants: Results from the Trial of Indomethacin Prophylaxis in Preterms (TIPP) [abstract 2589]. In: Program and abstracts of the 2004 Pediatric Academic Societies' Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.


P. Gournay V, Savagner C, Thiriez G, Kuster A, Roze JC. Pulmonary hypertension after ibuprofen prophylaxis in very preterm infants. Lancet. 2002 Apr 27;359(9316):1486-8.


1. Lancet. 2002 Sep 28;360(9338):1023-4. comment on above


2. Lancet. 2002 Aug 10;360(9331):492. comment on above


Q. Butler-O'Hara M, D'Angio CT. Risk of Persistent Renal Insufficiency in Premature Infants Following the Prenatal Use of Indomethacin for Suppression of Preterm Labor. Journal of Perinatology 2002;22:541-546.


VIII. Nutrition.


A. Lipid hang time


1. Sacks G, et al. Does lipid hang time make a difference? Time is of the essence. Nutr Clin Pract 2002;17:284-90.


2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for the Prevention of Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections. MMWR 2002;51(No. RR-10).


3. The 2002 Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline for prevention of intravascular device-related infection. Pediatrics. 2002 Nov;110(5):1009-13.


4. Saiman L, Ludington E, Pfaller M, Rangel-Frausto S, Wiblin RT, Dawson J, Blumberg HM, Patterson JE, Rinaldi M, Edwards JE, Wenzel RP, Jarvis W. Risk factors for candidemia in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit patients. The National Epidemiology of Mycosis Survey study group. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000 Apr;19(4):319-24.


5. Saiman L, Ludington E, Dawson JD, Patterson JE, Rangel-Frausto S, Wiblin RT, Blumberg HM, Pfaller M, Rinaldi M, Edwards JE, Wenzel RP, Jarvis W; National Epidemiology of Mycoses Study Group. Risk factors for Candida species colonization of neonatal intensive care unit patients. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001 Dec;20(12):1119-24.


B. Aluminum


1. Perry L. Improving safety of TPNs: Applying new FDA rules. Drug Topics 2003;2:HSE14.


2. Perry L. FDA delays mandate on aluminum labeling in TPNs. Drug Topics 2004;148:HSE6.


3. Amendment of Regulations on Aluminum in Large and Small Volume Parenterals Used in Total Parenteral Nutrition; Delay of Effective Date. Federal Register 21CFR Part 201, Vol. 68, No. 106, June 3, 2003.


4. A.S.P.E.N working on guidelines


5. Not a problem in Europe


IX. Miscellaneous


A. Fluid resuscitation


1. Mayock DE, Gleason CA. Cerebrovascular Effects of Rapid Volume Expansion in Preterm Fetal Sheep. Pediatr Res 2004;55:395-399.


B. Vitamin K


1. Controversies concerning vitamin K and the newborn. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Pediatrics. 2003 Jul;112(1 Pt 1):191-2.


2. Wariyar U, Hilton S, Pagan J, Tin W, Hey E. Six years' experience of prophylactic oral vitamin K. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2000 Jan;82(1):F64-8.


3. Hansen KN, Minousis M, Ebbesen F. Weekly oral vitamin K prophylaxis in Denmark. Acta Paediatr. 2003 Jul;92(7):802-5.


4. Costakos DT, Greer FR, Love LA, Dahlen LR, Suttie JW. Vitamin K prophylaxis for premature infants: 1 mg versus 0.5 mg. Am J Perinatol. 2003 Nov;20(8):485-90.


5. Loughnan PM, McDougall PN, Balvin H, Doyle LW, Smith AL. Late onset haemorrhagic disease in premature infants who received intravenous vitamin K1. J Paediatr Child Health 1996 Jun;32(3):268-9.


6. Vitamin K and childhood cancer: a report from the United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study. Br J Cancer. 2003 Oct 6;89(7):1228-31.


7. Schubiger G, Berger TM, Weber R, Banziger O, Laubscher B; Swiss Paediatric Surveillance Unit. Prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding with oral mixed micellar phylloquinone: results of a 6-year surveillance in Switzerland. Eur J Pediatr. 2003 Dec;162(12):885-8.


8. von Kries R, Hachmeister A, Gobel U. Oral mixed micellar vitamin K for prevention of late vitamin K deficiency bleeding. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2003 Mar;88(2):F109-12.


9. Pereira SP, Shearer MJ, Williams R, Mieli-Vergani G. Intestinal absorption of mixed micellar phylloquinone (vitamin K1) is unreliable in infants with conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia: implications for oral prophylaxis of vitamin K deficiency bleeding. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2003 Mar;88(2):F113-8.


C. Allopurinol


1. Clancy RR, McGaurn SA, Goin JE, Hirtz DG, Norwood WI, Gaynor JW, Jacobs ML, Wernovsky G, Mahle WT, Murphy JD, Nicolson SC, Steven JM, Spray TL. Allopurinol neurocardiac protection trial in infants undergoing heart surgery using deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Pediatrics. 2001 Jul;108(1):61-70.


2. Van Bel F, Shadid M, Moison RM, et al. Effect of allopurinol on postasphyxial free radical formation, cerebral hemodynamics and electrical brain activity. Pediatrics. 1998 Feb;101(2):185-93.


3. Peeters-Scholte C, Braun K, Koster J, Kops N, Blomgren K, Buonocore G, van Buul-Offers S, Hagberg H, Nicolay K, van Bel F, Groenendaal F. Effects of allopurinol and deferoxamine on reperfusion injury of the brain in newborn piglets after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. Pediatr Res. 2003 Oct;54(4):516-22.


4. Lombardi MS, van den Tweel E, Kavelaars A, Groenendaal F, van Bel F, Heijnen CJ. Hypoxia/ischemia modulates G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 and beta-arrestin-1 levels in the neonatal rat brain. Stroke. 2004 Apr;35(4):981-6.


5. Marro PJ, Ashraf QM, Zhu A, Mishra OP, Delivoria-Papadopoulos M. The Effect of Post-Hypoxic Allopurinol Treatment on Temporal Alterations of Caspase Protein Expression in the Cerebral Cortex of Newborn Guinea Pigs [abstract 2467]. In: Program and abstracts of the 2004 Pediatric Academic Societies' Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.


6. Truttmann AC, Haider SH, Kubin J, Mishra OP, Delivoria-Papadopoulos M. The Effect of Posthypoxic Administration of Allopurinol on Ca++/Calmodulin-Dependent Kinase IV (CaMK IV) Activity in Cerebral Cortical Nuclei of Newborn Piglets [abstract 2130]. In: 2003 Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting Program with Abstracts-On-Line, Marathon Multimedia, 2003.


7. Khurana P, Truttmann AC, Katsetos CD, Mishra OP, Delivoria-Papadopoulos M. Effect of Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition on Hypoxia-Induced Increase in Neuronal Nuclear Calcium Influx in the Cerebral Cortex of Newborn Piglets [abstract 1976]. In: 2003 Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting Program with Abstracts-On-Line, Marathon Multimedia, 2003.


8. Whitelaw A, Thoresen M Clinical trials of treatments after perinatal asphyxia. Curr Opin Pediatr 2002, 14:664-668.


9. Peeters C, van Bel F. Pharmacotherapeutical reduction of post-hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the newborn. Biol Neonate. 2001;79:274-280


D. Cord/catheter care.


1. N. Chaiyakunapruk, D.L. Veenstra, B.A. Lipsky and S. Saint, Chlorhexidine compared with povidone-iodine solution for vascular catheter-site care: A meta analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2002 Jun 4;136(11):792-801.


2. Garland JS, Alex CP, Mueller CD, Otten D, Shivpuri C, Harris MC, Naples M, Pellegrini J, Buck RK, McAuliffe TL, Goldmann DA, Maki DG. A randomized trial comparing povidone-iodine to a chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated dressing for prevention of central venous catheter infections in neonates. Pediatrics. 2001 Jun;107(6):1431-6.


3. The 2002 Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline for prevention of intravascular device-related infection. Pediatrics. 2002 Nov;110(5):1009-13.


4. Krau SD. Review: chlorhexidine gluconate is more effective than povidone-iodine for preventing vascular catheter related bloodstream infection. Evid Based Nurs. 2003 Jan;6(1):18.


5. Lin CP, Chen W, Wu KW. Povidone-iodine in umbilical cord care interferes with neonatal screening for hypothyroidism. Eur J Pediatr. 1994 Oct;153(10):756-8.


6. Coakley JC, Francis I, Gold H, Mathur K, Connelly JF. Transient primary hypothyroidism in the newborn: experience of the Victorian Neonatal Thyroid Screening Programme. Aust Paediatr J. 1989 Feb;25(1):25-30 & 1989 Jun;25(3):25.


7. Cosman BC, Schullinger JN, Bell JJ, Regan JA. Hypothyroidism caused by topical povidone-iodine in a newborn with omphalocele. J Pediatr Surg. 1988 Apr;23(4):356-8.


8. Jackson HJ, Sutherland RM. Effect of povidone-iodine on neonatal thyroid function. Lancet. 1981 Oct 31;2(8253):992.


9. Pezzati M, Cosenza Biagioli E, Martelli E, Gambi B, Biagiotti B, Rubaltelli FF. Umbilical cord care: the effect of eight different cord-care regimens on cord separation time and other outcomes. Biol Neonate. 2002 Jan;81(1):38-44.


10. Janssen PA, Selwood BL, Dobson SR, Peacock D, Thiessen PN. To dye or not to dye: a randomized, clinical trial of a triple dye/alcohol regime versus dry cord care. Pediatrics. 2003 Jan;111(1):15-20.


11. Pezzati M, Rossi S, Tronchin M, Dani C, Filippi L, Rubaltelli FF. Umbilical cord care in premature infants: the effect of two different cord-care regimens (salicylic sugar powder vs chlorhexidine) on cord separation time and other outcomes. Pediatrics. 2003 Oct;112(4):e275.


12. Karlowicz MG, Furigay PJ, Croitoru DP, Buescher ES. Central venous catheter removal versus in situ treatment in neonates with coagulase-negative staphylococcal bacteremia. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002 Jan;21(1):22-7.


13. Nazemi KJ, Buescher ES, Kelly RE Jr, Karlowicz MG. Central venous catheter removal versus in situ treatment in neonates with enterobacteriaceae bacteremia. Pediatrics. 2003 Mar;111(3):e269-74.


E. Viagra-2.5 mg/mL oral suspension, 0.25 mg/kg/q12h-1 mg/kg/q6h


1. Atz AM, Wessel DL. Sildenafil ameliorates effects of inhaled nitric oxide withdrawal. Anesthesiology 1999;91:307-310.


2. Atz AM, Lefler AK, Fairbrother DL, Uber WE, Bradley SM (2002) Sildenafil augments the effect of inhaled nitric oxide for postoperative pulmonary hypertensive crises. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2002;124:628-629.


3. Abrams D, Schulze-Neick I, Magee AG. Sildenafil as a selective pulmonary vasodilator in childhood primary pulmonary hypertension. Heart. 2000;84 (2):E4.


4. Travadi JN, Patole SK. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn: a review. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2003 Dec;36(6):529- 35.


5. Carroll WD, Dhillon R. Sildenafil as a treatment for pulmonary hypertension. Arch Dis Child. 2003 Sep;88(9):827-8.


6. Nahata MC, Morosco RA, Zaucha JA. Stability of sildenafil citrate in two extemporaneously prepared oral dosage forms stored under refrigeration and at room temperature [abstract]. 38th Annual American Society of Health-System Pharmacists Midyear Clinical Meeting and Exhibits: 2003 Dec 7-11; New Orleans, LA.


7. Shekerdemian LS, Ravn HB, Penny DJ. Intravenous sildenafil lowers pulmonary vascular resistance in a model of neonatal pulmonary hypertension. Am J Resp Crit Care Med. 2002;165:1098-102.


8. Marsh CS, Marden B, Newsom R. Severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in a premature baby treated with sildenafil acetate (Viagra) for pulmonary hypertension. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004 Feb;88(2):306-7.


9. Kumar S. Indian doctor in protest after using Viagra to save ``blue babies." BMJ. 2002 Jul 27;325(7357):181.


10. Keller RL, et al. Treatment of rebound and chronic pulmonary hypertension with oral sildenafil in an infant with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Ped Crit Care Med. 2004;5(2):184-187.


11. Schulze-Neick I, Hartenstein P, Li J, Stiller B, Nagdyman N, Hubler M, Butrous G, Petros A, Lange P, Redington AN. Intravenous sildenafil is a potent pulmonary vasodilator in children with congenital heart disease. Circulation. 2003 Sep 9;108 Suppl 1:II167-73.


12. Baquero H, Neira F, Venegas V, Sola A, Soliz A. Oral Sildenafil for Infants with Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn: A Pilot Randomized Blinded Study [abstract 2649]. In: Program and abstracts of the 2004 Pediatric Academic Societies' Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.


13. Shekerdemian LS, Ravn HB, Penny DJ. Interaction between Inhaled Nitric Oxide and Intravenous Sildenafil in a Porcine Model of Meconium Aspiration Syndrome. Ped Res. 2004;55(3):413-418.


14. Obaid L, Johnson ST, Bigam DL, Cheung P. Pulmonary Vasodilatation with Intratracheal Sildenafil and Surfactant in Newborn Piglets with Pulmonary Hypertension [abstract 2675]. In: Program and abstracts of the 2004 Pediatric Academic Societies' Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.


X. Drugs and Breastfeeding


A. Dodd V, Chalmers C. Comparing the Use of Hydrogel Dressings to Lanolin Ointment With Lactating Mothers. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2003; 32: 486-494. Hydrogel is better.


B. Centuori S, Nipple care, sore nipples, and breastfeeding: a randomized trial. J Hum Lact. 1999 Jun;15(2):125-30. No difference between ointment and nothing.


C. Pugh LC, Buchko BL, Bishop BA, Cochran JF, Smith LR, Lerew DJ. A comparison of topical agents to relieve nipple pain and enhance breastfeeding. Birth. 1996 Jun;23(2):88-93. No difference between lanolin, water compress, and expressed breastmilk.


D. Casteels K, Punt S, Bramswig J. Transient neonatal hypothyroidism during breastfeeding after post-natal maternal topical iodine treatment. Eur J Pediatr. 2000 Sep;159(9):716-7.


E. Anderson PO, Pochop SL, Manoguerra AS. Adverse drug reactions in breastfed infants: less than imagined. Clin Pediatr. 2003 May;42(4):325-40.


F. Ito S, Lee A. Drug excretion into breast milk. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2003 Apr 29;55(5):617-27.


G. French AE, Soldin SJ, Soldin OP, Koren G. Milk transfer and neonatal safety of tacrolimus. Ann Pharmacother. 2003 Jun;37(6):815-8.


1. Coady NT. Maternal transplantation medications during breastfeeding. J Hum Lact. 2002 Feb;18(1):66-8.


H. Glyburide.


1. Feig DS, Kraemer M, Moskovitz DN, Donat D, Koren G. The transfer of glyburide into breast milk [PI-79] Abstracts of Papers: 2004 Annual Meeting of the American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Clin Pharmacol Ther. Feb 2004;75(2):P24.


I. Antidepressants and breastfeeding


1. Newport DJ, Hostetter A, Arnold A, Stowe ZN. The treatment of postpartum depression: minimizing infant exposures. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002;63 Suppl 7:31- 44.


2. Hendrick V, Smith LM, Hwang S, Altshuler LL, Haynes D. Weight gain in breastfed infants of mothers taking antidepressant medications. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003 Apr;64(4):410-2.


3. Heikkinen T, Ekblad U, Palo P, Laine K. Pharmacokinetics of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in pregnancy and lactation. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Apr;73(4):330- 7.


4. Stowe ZN, The pharmacokinetics of sertraline excretion into human breast milk: determinants of infant serum concentrations. Highest milk concentrations 8-9 hours post dose.


J. Schiappacasse V, Diaz S, Zepeda A, Alvarado R, Herreros C Health and growth of infants breastfed by Norplant contraceptive implants users: a six-year follow-up study. Contraception. 2002 Jul;66(1):57-65. Some side effects noted.


K. Bassol S, Nava-Hernandez MP, Hernandez-Morales C, Trujillo-Macias AM, Lopez-Lozano MR, Recio R. Effects of levonorgestrel implant upon TSH and LH levels in male infants during lactation. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2002 Mar;76(3):273-7. Some side effects noted.


L. Halderman LD, Nelson AL. Impact of early postpartum administration of progestin-only hormonal contraceptives compared with nonhormonal contraceptives on short-term breast-feeding patterns. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Jun;186(6):1250-6; discussion 1256-8.


M. Garde V, Harper D, Fairchok MP. Tertiary contact vaccinia in a breastfeeding infant. JAMA. 2004 Feb 11;291(6):725-7.


XI. Conclusion:


A. Henderson-Smart DJ, Osborn D, Evans N, Beeby P, Jeffery H. Do we practice evidence-based care in our neonatal intensive care units? Clin Perinatol. 2003 Jun;30(2):333-42.


B. Harrold J, Schmidt B. Evidence-based neonatology: making a difference beyond discharge from the neonatal nursery. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2002 Apr;14(2):165-9.