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  1. Spetz, Joanne PhD


The author examines the history and early implementation of specific minimum nurse-to-patient ratios in all units of acute-care hospitals in California. After reviewing preliminary forecasts of the effects of the ratios, the effects of the regulations in the first few months of their implementation are studied. Future concerns and needs for research are explored to provide guidance about issues that nursing leaders must address when considering minimum nurse-to-patient ratios.