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Clinical Simulation, Google Cardboard, Telepresence, Virtual Reality



  1. Dang, Bryan K.
  2. O'Leary-Kelley, Colleen
  3. Palicte, Jeland S.
  4. Badheka, Soham
  5. Vuppalapati, Chandrasekhar


Abstract: Virtual reality (VR) could enable clinical simulation centers to reach the teaching capacity of traditional hospital practica. This study quantitatively tests VR telepresence against two traditional simulation learning methods using a within-subject design and the Presence Questionnaire. Eight nursing students were randomly assigned and rotated through simulation participation, VR observation, and television observation conditions, completing a questionnaire after each condition. Each condition had a significant effect on presence. Simulation participation yielded the highest perceived presence, followed by VR, and lastly by television observation. This pilot study probed for effect and feedback that will inform a larger experiment.