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  1. Hall, Mary-Frances E. BS
  2. Church, Frank C. PhD


Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder with approximately 60 000 newly diagnosed patients yearly in the United States. PD is traditionally described as a motor system condition, although numerous nonmotor symptoms exist, and typically manifest within elderly patients. The hallmark pathogenesis of PD is the loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra region. This leads to a traditional treatment goal of dopamine replacement. We outline an integrative medicine and health strategy for PD that utilizes not only traditional but also nontraditional therapeutic approaches. This strategy supports the neuronal microenvironment and restorative health of both the brain and the body.