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Keywords

advanced practice registered nurse, clinical nurse specialist, integrative review, nurse anesthetist, nurse midwife, nurse practitioner, organizational climate, organizational culture, practice environment

 

Authors

  1. Schirle, Lori
  2. Norful, Allison A.
  3. Rudner, Nancy
  4. Poghosyan, Lusine

Abstract

Background: The organizational environment can foster or impede full deployment of advance practice registered nurses (APRNs), affecting the quality of care and patient outcomes. Given the critical role APRNs play in health care, it is important to understand organizational factors that promote or hinder APRN practice to maximize the potential of this workforce in health care systems.

 

Purpose: The aim of this study was to synthesize evidence about APRN practice environments, identify organizational facilitators and barriers, and make recommendations for better APRN utilization.

 

Methods: A literature search was conducted in CINAHL, PubMed, and PsychInfo, yielding 366 studies. No time or geographic limitations were applied. Study quality was appraised using the National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies and The Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Qualitative Studies.

 

Results: Thirty studies conducted in the United States, Canada, and the Netherlands met inclusion criteria. The majority of the studies involved nurse practitioners. Facilitators to optimal practice environment were autonomy/independent practice and positive physician/APRN relations. Barriers included policy restrictions on practice, poor physician relations, poor administrator relations, and others' lack of understanding of the APRN role. Barriers correlate with job dissatisfaction and increased intent to leave job.

 

Practice Implications: The review highlights the importance of physician and administration relations, organizational-level policies, and colleagues' understanding of the APRN role in promoting effective practice environments. Organizations should align policy reform efforts with factors that foster positive APRN practice environments to efficiently and effectively utilize this increasingly vital workforce. Future research is warranted.