Buy this Article for $10.95

Have a coupon or promotional code? Enter it here:

When you buy this you'll get access to the ePub version, a downloadable PDF, and the ability to print the full article.


alcohol use disorder, empathy, nursing students, simulation, standardized patients



  1. Patterson, Jodi PhD, RN
  2. Duke, Gloria PhD, RN
  3. Stocks, Eric PhD
  4. Hermanns, Melinda PhD, RN


Background: Empathy can be challenging when caring for individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs).


Purpose: This study examined the effectiveness of simulation for enhancing the empathy of nursing students toward patients with AUD.


Methods: A mixed-methods study used a pretest-posttest intervention measurement of empathy with the Comprehensive State Empathy Scale (CSES) and focus groups. Quantitative data were analyzed with t tests, whereas thematic analysis evaluated the qualitative data.


Results: No significant differences were found between pre- and post-CSES scores. The subscales of empathic concern and shared affect were significant: empathic concern, t55 = - 2.16, P = .04, and shared affect, t55 = -2.16, P = .02. Empathic imagination reached significance for students with personal experience with someone with an AUD, t54 = -2.39, P = .02.


Conclusions: Additional research is warranted regarding the effect of simulation on empathic concern, shared affect, and empathic imagination toward individuals with AUD.