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Distance education, Indicators, Framework, Success, Technology





Distance education offers many advantages to students, faculty, and educational institutions. Despite these advantages, distance education classes historically have higher dropout rates than do the courses taught in the traditional, face-to-face setting. Current research includes information related to technology, teaching tips, and resources for these extended learning opportunities. However, information related to student success in distance education is limited and success indicators are poorly defined. Current studies on success indicators often lack a defining framework that provides an opportunity for study replication and strengthens the credibility of study findings. An empirical model developed by Powell et al divides potential determinants of success into three categories. This literature review identifies indicators in each category and indicates a need to revise the current framework to include technology as a fourth category. The revised framework should provide a basis for additional research in this rapidly growing area.