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absenteeism, chaining, flexibility, staffing



  1. Inman, Robert R.
  2. Blumenfeld, Dennis E.
  3. Ko, Arthur


Abstract: There are advantages and disadvantages of cross-training hospital nurses. The financial benefit of reducing reliance on supplemental agency staff can be quantified. Cross-training policies can be compared. Simulation shows that the strategic cross-training principle of chaining performs particularly well. Practical formulas (that can be solved in a spreadsheet) are provided for quickly evaluating the economic performance of staffing and cross-training scenarios.