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  1. Leung, Jane MSN, AGACNP-BC
  2. Pham, Stacey MSN, AGACNP-BC


Clostridioides difficile infection is a major clinical challenge, which may be associated with severe complications. Clostridioides difficile infection may result in repeated episodes of diarrhea, abdominal pain, and dehydration, leading to an increased risk of mortality. Increasingly high rates of recurrent Clostridioides difficile-associated diarrhea, refractory to antibiotic therapy, are difficult to treat. The suboptimal response to antibiotic therapy has led to the need for fecal microbiota transplantation in addition to the more commonly prescribed antibiotic, vancomycin. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplantation in the resolution of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection in adults, compared with an oral vancomycin regimen alone. A systematic literature search was performed, resulting in three randomized control studies. Results from the studies are conflicting, with different variations of study outcomes. In two of the three randomized control trials, fecal microbiota transplantation was statistically significant in effectively resolving Clostridioides difficile infection, but not significant in the third. Although fecal microbiota transplantation results are promising, there are many different variables within the studies, and further research is recommended to explore the effects of these variables within larger sample sizes.